Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Retrieval of Antarctic sea ice freeboard and thickness from HY-2B satellite altimeter data
Yizhuo Chen, Xiaoping Pang, Qing Ji, Zhongnan Yan, Zeyu Liang, Chenlei Zhang
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML](18)
Antarctic sea ice is an important part of the Earth’s atmospheric system, and satellite remote sensing is an important technology for observing Antarctic sea ice. Whether Chinese Haiyang-2B (HY-2B) satellite altimeter data could be used to estimate sea ice freeboard and provide alternative Antarctic sea ice thickness information with a high precision and long time series, as other radar altimetry satellites can, needs further investigation. This paper proposed an algorithm to discriminate leads and then retrieve sea ice freeboard and thickness from HY-2B radar altimeter data. We first collected the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ice surface temperature (IST) product from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to extract leads from the Antarctic Ocean and verified their accuracy through Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar images. Second, a surface classification decision tree was generated for HY-2B satellite altimeter measurements of the Antarctic Ocean to extract leads and calculate local sea surface heights. We then estimated the Antarctic sea ice freeboard and thickness based on local sea surface heights and the static equilibrium equation. Finally, the retrieved HY-2B Antarctic sea ice thickness was compared with the CryoSat-2 sea ice thickness and the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) ship-based observed sea ice thickness. The results indicate that our classification decision tree constructed for HY-2B satellite altimeter measurements was reasonable, and the root mean square error of the obtained sea ice thickness compared to the ship measurements was 0.62 m. The proposed sea ice thickness algorithm for the HY-2B radar satellite fills a gap in this application domain for the HY-series satellites and can be a complement to existing Antarctic sea ice thickness products; this algorithm could provide long-time-series and large-scale sea ice thickness data that contribute to research on global climate change.
Geochemistry of volcanic glass from Mahanadi offshore region, eastern continental margin of India: Constraints on the contribution of latest Toba super-eruption
Muralidhar Kocherla, Durbar Ray, Manavalan Satyanarayanan, Hilda Joao, Virsen Gaikwad, P.B Ramamurty
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2195-5
[Abstract](92) [FullText HTML](39) [PDF 2588KB](15)
The tephra layers in multiple sediment cores from the offshore region of the Mahanadi basin in the northern Bay of Bengal were investigated for possible volcanic sources. The glass shards from those tephra layers were studied for size distribution, texture, and elemental geochemistry to establish chronostratigraphic markers for regional and global Quaternary correlation. The textural features of fine-grained (silty) volcanic glasses suggest the distal source of these tephra deposits. Major element composition with elevated SiO2 contents ranging between 75%–76% and dominance of K2O (> 4.5%) over CaO (< 0.9%) suggest ashes have originated from siliceous rhyolitic melts, similar to the petrographic composition of tephra from the Toba volcano. The bulk trace element compositions of the same glass shards were comparable with those reported in the youngest Toba tephra reported elsewhere. Likewise, the LREE-dominated chondrite normalized REE profiles of tephra from the Mahanadi basin closely resemble the characteristic REE patterns in Toba ash from other parts of the Indian Ocean and thus confirmed the contribution of the youngest Toba super-eruption for this ash layers.
Diagenetic evolution and reservoir quality of the Oligocene sandstones in the Baiyun Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea
Bing Tian, Shanshan Zuo, Youwei Zheng, Jie Zhang, Jiayu Du, Jun Tang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2262-y
[Abstract](72) [FullText HTML](33)
The Oligocene Zhuhai sandstones are significant reservoirs for hydrocarbons in the Baiyun Sag, South China Sea. For effective appraisal, exploration and exploitation of such a deep-water hydrocarbon sandstone, samples of five wells from depths of 850 m to 3000 m were studied. A series of comprehensive petrographic and geochemical analyses were performed to unravel the diagenetic features and their impact on the reservoir quality. Petrographically, the sandstones are dominated by feldspathic litharenites and lithic arenites with fine to medium grain sizes and moderate to good sorting. The reservoir quality varies greatly with a range of porosity from 0.2% to 36.1% and permeability from 0.016 ×10–3 μm2 to 4301 ×10–3 μm2, which is attributed to complex diagenetic evolution related to sedimentary facies; these include compaction, cementation of calcite, dolomite, siderite and framboidal pyrite in eogenetic stage; further compaction, feldspar dissolution, precipitation of ferrocalcite and ankerite, quartz cements, formation of kaolinite and its illitization, precipitation of albite and nodular pyrite, as well as hydrocarbon charge in mesogenetic stage. The dissolution of feldspar and illitization of kaolinite provide internal sources for the precipitation of quartz cement, while carbonate cements are derived from external sources related to interbedded mudstones and deep fluid. Compaction is the predominant factor in reducing the total porosity, followed by carbonate cementation that leads to strong heterogeneity. Feldspar dissolution and concomitant quartz and clay cementation barely changes the porosity but significantly reduces the permeability. The high-quality reservoirs can be concluded as medium-grained sandstones lying in the central parts of thick underwater distributary channel sandbodies (>2 m) with a high content of detrital quartz but low cement.
Acoustical imaging of the nearshore seafloor depositions and deformations, a key study for Western Istanbul, Türkiye
ÖZGAN Sinan, ALP Hakan, BAYAT Oğuz, VARDAR Denizhan
[Abstract](72) [FullText HTML](36)
To protect the sustainability of the benefits from seas and near coastal areas, which have under the effect of the very complex hydrodynamic conditions and intensive human activities, without disrupting the balance of nature, it is necessary to image the status of the seafloor features. Therefore, this study presents the deformations, depositional conditions, underwater constructions, and the other non-natural impacts on the seafloor of the nearshore area at western Istanbul (between Küçükçekmece and Büyükçekmece Lagoons) where it intensely used by the citizens. The results of the study may provide some guidance for understanding the impacts and risk factors of uses that are or will be conducted in coastal and/or near-coastal areas. Construction planning for civil coastal structures and areas should be done in great harmony with nature, minimizing negative environmental impacts. Although sediment distribution in the area is generally quite complex, the current state of the region, wave action, hydrodynamic conditions, the amount of material transported from the land, and bathymetry are important influencing factors. The seafloor has been damaged primarily by anchor deformation and associated bottom scanning, as well as disturbing trawl tracks. The seafloor was observed as partially shallowing near the constructions (such as natural gas pipelines, fishermen's shelter, and port piles) of coastal areas and associated with sand deposits. Therefore, scanning the seafloor using side-scan sonar may provide valuable frequency data to prevent future disruptions.
A Review on the parasitic isopod genus Notophryxus G O Sars, 1883 (Crustacea: Isopoda), and first report of Notophryxus globularis G O Sars, 1885 from Lakshadweep Sea (Amini Island)
Mukkattu Nazar Suhaana, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Paravanparambil Rajakumar Jayachandran, Punnakkal Hari Praved, Sivasankaran Bijoy Nandan
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2217-3
[Abstract](42) [FullText HTML](20)
Isopod crustaceans of the family Dajidae are exclusively marine ectoparasites. The genus Notophryxus G. O. Sars, 1883 currently includes nine nominal species, which are very rarely reported as the chances for encountering these specimens are unpredictable. Our comprehension of the taxonomy, biology, ecology, and life cycle of species belonging to the Notophryxus genus is notably lacking. All nominal species of Notophryxus genus are reviewed here to obtain a comprehensive and integrative taxonomic understanding of this genus, in an attempt to address the lacunae. This paper also documents the rediscovery of an ectoparasitic isopod from the genus Notophryxus in Indian waters, after 55 years. Adult isopod specimens obtained from the outer reefs of Amini Island in the Lakshadweep archipelago, Southeastern Arabian Sea, display morphological congruence to Notophryxus globularis G.O. Sars, 1885. The only previous report on this species dates back to 1885 from G.O. Sars' description of N. globularis as an ectoparasite on the euphausiid Thysanoessa gregaria G.O. Sars, 1883 in the North Pacific. This discovery represents a range extension of N. globularis from the North Pacific to the Arabian Sea. Two cryptoniscid larvae and three adult females of N. globularis (with dwarf males) were found attached to four adult mysid specimens of Siriella aequiremis Hansen, 1910. The present study provides an improved diagnosis of N. globularis with the aid of light microscopy images and line drawings which was not given in the original G O Sars, 1885 report. This research also provides a concise description of cryptoniscid larvae from the same sampling location and same host which is most likely to be N. globularis larvae.
The largest CPIES array in the marginal sea: abundant dynamics in the northeast South China Sea
Hua Zheng, Xiao-Hua Zhu, Min Wang, Ruixiang Zhao, Chuanzheng Zhang, Feng Nan, Fei Yu
[Abstract](32) [FullText HTML](16)
What induced the trend shift of mixed-layer depths in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current region in the mid-1980s?
Shan Liu, Jingzhi Su, Huijun Wang, Cuijuan Sui
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2268-5
[Abstract](142) [FullText HTML](63) [PDF 9069KB](8)
An obvious trend shift in the annual mean and winter mixed layer depth (MLD) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region was detected during the 1960–2021 period. Shallowing trends stopped in mid-1980s, followed by a period of weak trends. The MLD deepening trend difference between the two periods were mainly distributed in the western areas in the Drake Passage, the areas north to Victoria Land and Wilkes Land, and the central parts of the South Indian sector. The newly formed ocean current shear due to the meridional shift of the ACC flow axis between the two periods is the dominant driver for the MLD trends shift distributed in the western areas in the Drake Passage and the central parts of the South Indian sector. The saltier trends in the regions north to Victoria Land and Wilkes Land could be responsible for the strengthening mixing processes in this region.
Research on the generation method of seawater sound velocity model based on Perlin noise
Zhimiao Chang, Fuxing Han, Zhangqing Sun, Zhenghui Gao, Xueqiu Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2230-6
[Abstract](143) [FullText HTML](63) [PDF 8759KB](3)
In the processing of conventional marine seismic data, seawater is often assumed to have a constant velocity model. However, due to static pressure, temperature difference and other factors, random disturbances may often frequently in seawater bodies. The impact of such disturbances on data processing results is a topic of theoretical research. Since seawater sound velocity is a difficult physical quantity to measure, there is a need for a method that can generate models conforming to seawater characteristics. This article will combine the Munk model and Perlin noise to propose a two-dimensional dynamic seawater sound velocity model generation method, a method that can generate a dynamic, continuous, random seawater sound velocity model with some regularity at large scales. Moreover, the paper discusses the influence of the inhomogeneity characteristics of seawater on wave field propagation and imaging. The results show that the seawater sound velocity model with random disturbance will have a significant influence on the wave field simulation and imaging results.
Characteristics and main controlling factors of helium resources in the main petroliferous basins of the North China Craton
Zihan Gao, Zhi Chen, Hongyi He, Zhaofei Liu, Chang Lu, Hanyu Wang, Yili Luo, Ying Li
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-024-2290-2
[Abstract](222) [FullText HTML](98) [PDF 2221KB](22)
At present, the main controlling factors of helium accumulation is one of the key scientific problems restricting the exploration and development of helium reservoir. In this paper, based on the calculation results of He generation rate and the geochemical characteristics of the produced gas, both the similarities and differences between natural gas and He resources in the Bohai Bay, Ordos and the surrounding Songliao Basin are compared and analyzed, discussing the main controlling factors of helium resources in the three main petroliferous basins of the North China Craton. It is found that the three basins of Bohai Bay, Ordos and Songliao have similar characteristics of source rocks, reservoirs and cap rocks, that’s why their methane resource characteristics are essentially the same. The calculated 4He generation per cubic metamorphic crystalline basement in the three basins is roughly equivalent, which is consistent with the measured He resources, and it is believed that the 4He of radiogenic from the crust is the main factor controlling the overall He accumulation in the three basins; there is almost no contribution of the mantle-derived CH4, which suggests that the transport and uplift of mantle-derived 3He carried by the present-day magmatic activities along the deep-large faults is not the main reason for the mantle-derived 3He mixing in the basins. Combined with the results of regional volcanic and geophysical studies, it is concluded that under the background of the destruction of North China Craton, magma intrusion carried a large amount of mantle-derived material and formed basic volcanic rocks in the Bohai Bay Basin and Songliao Basin, which replenished mantle-derived 3He for the interior of the basins, and that strong seismic activities in and around the basins also promoted the upward migration of mantle source 3He. This study suggests that the tectonic zone with dense volcanic rocks in the Cenozoic era and a high incidence of historical strong earthquakes history may be a potential area for helium resource exploration.
Observing eddy dye patches induced by shear instabilities in the surf zone on a plane beach
Chunping Ren, Nannan Fu, Chong Yu, Yuchuan Bai, Kezhao Fang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2270-y
[Abstract](55) [FullText HTML](20)
The effects of surf zone eddy generated by alongshore currents on the deformation and transport of dye are still poorly understood, and related tracer release experiments are lacking. Therefore, a tracer release laboratory experiment was conducted under monochromatic, unidirectional incident waves with a large incident angle (30°) on a plane beach with a 1:100 slope in a large wave basin. A charge-coupled device suspended above the basin recorded the dye patch image. The evolution of eddy dye patch was observed and the transport and diffusion were analyzed based on the collected images. Subsequently, a linear instability numerical model was adopted to calculate the perturbation velocity field at the initial stage. The observation and image processing results show that surf zone eddy patches occurred and were separated from the original dye patches. Our numerical analysis results demonstrat that the structure of the perturbation velocity field is consistent with the experimental observations, and that the ejection of eddy patches shoreward or offshore may be ascribed to the double vortex.
Three-dimensional constrained gravity inversion of Moho depth and crustal structural characteristics at Mozambique continental margin
Shihao Yang, Zhaocai Wu, Yinxia Fang, Mingju Xu, Jialing Zhang, Fanlin Yang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2220-8
[Abstract](251) [FullText HTML](84)
Mozambique’s continental margin in East Africa was formed during the break-off stage of the east and west Gondwana lands. Studying the geological structure and division of continent-ocean boundary (COB) in Mozambique’s continental margin is considered of great significance to rebuild Gondwana land and understand its movement mode. Along these lines, in this work, the initial Moho was fit using the known Moho depth from reflection seismic profiles, and a 3D multi-point constrained gravity inversion was carried out. Thus, high-accuracy Moho depth and crustal thickness in the study area were acquired. According to the crustal structure distribution based on the inversion results, the continental crust at the narrowest position of the Mozambique Channel was detected. According to the analysis of the crustal thickness, the Mozambique ridge is generally oceanic crust and the COB of the whole Mozambique continental margin is divided.
Coral records of Mid-Holocene sea-level highstands and climate responses in the northern South China Sea
Yuanfu Yue, Lichao Tang, Kefu Yu, Rongyong Huang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2264-9
[Abstract](1644) [FullText HTML](806) [PDF 3265KB](389)
High-resolution sea-level data and high-precision dating of corals in the northern South China Sea (SCS) during the Holocene provide a reference and historical background for current and future sea-level changes and a basis for scientific assessment of the evolutionary trend of coral reefs in the SCS. Although sporadic studies have been performed around Hainan Island in the northern SCS, the reconstructed sea level presents different values or is controversial because the indicative meaning of the sea-level indicators were neither quantified nor uniform criteria. Here, we determined the quantitative relationship between modern living coral and sea level by measuring the top surfaces of 27 live Porites corals from the inner reef flat along the east coast of Hainan Island and assessed the accuracy of results obtained using coral as sea-level indicators. Additionally, three in situ fossil Porites corals were analyzed based on elevation measurements, digital X-ray radiography, and U-Th dating. The survey results showed that the indicative meanings for the modern live Porites corals is (146.09 ± 8.35) cm below the mean tide level (MTL). It suggested that their upward growth limit is constrained by the sea level, and the lowest low water is the highest level of survival for the modern live Porites corals. Based on the newly defined indicative meanings, 6 new sea-level index points (SLIPs) were obtained and 19 published SLIPs were recalculated. Those SLIPs indicated a relative sea level fluctuation between (227.7 ± 9.8) cm to (154.88 ± 9.8) cm MTL between (5 393 ± 25) cal a BP and (3 390 ± 12) cal a BP, providing evidences of the Mid-Holocene sea-level highstand in the northern SCS. Besides that, our analysis demonstrated that different sea-level histories may be produced based on different indicative meanings or criteria. The dataset of 276 coral U-Th ages indicates that coral reef development in the northern SCS comprised the initial development, boom growth, decline, and flourishing development again. A comparison with regional records indicated that synergistic effects of climatic and environmental factors were involved in the development of coral reefs in the northern SCS. Thus, the cessation of coral reef development during the Holocene in the northern SCS was probably associated with the dry and cold climate in South China, as reflected in the synchronous weakening of the ENSO and East Asian summer monsoon induced by the reduction of the 65°N summer insolation, which forced the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
An improved algorithm based on equivalent sound speed profile method at large incident angle
Qianqian Li, Qian Tong, Fanlin Yang, Qi Li, Zhihao Juan, Yu Luo
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2261-z
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](20)
With the development of ultra-wide coverage technology, multibeam echo-sounder (MBES) system has put forward higher requirements for localization accuracy and computational efficiency of ray tracing method. The classical equivalent sound speed profile (ESSP) method replaces the measured sound velocity profile (SVP) with a simple constant gradient SVP, reducing the computational workload of beam positioning. However, in deep-sea environment, the depth measurement error of this method rapidly increases from the central beam to the edge beam. By analyzing the positioning error of the ESSP method at edge beam, it is discovered that the positioning error increases monotonically with the incident angle, and the relationship between them could be expressed by polynomial function. Therefore, an error correction algorithm based on polynomial fitting is obtained. The simulation experiment conducted on an inclined seafloor shows that the proposed algorithm exhibits comparable efficiency to the original ESSP method, while significantly improving bathymetry accuracy by nearly eight times in the edge beam.
Hyperspectral remote sensing identification of marine oil emulsions based on the fusion of spatial and spectral features
Xinyue Huang, Yi Ma, Zongchen Jiang, Junfang Yang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2249-8
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML](34)
Marine oil spill emulsions are difficult to recover, and the damage to the environment is not easy to eliminate. The use of remote sensing to accurately identify oil spill emulsions is highly important for the protection of marine environments. However, the spectrum of oil emulsions changes due to different water content. Hyperspectral remote sensing and deep learning can use spectral and spatial information to identify different types of oil emulsions. Nonetheless, hyperspectral data can also cause information redundancy, reducing classification accuracy and efficiency, and even overfitting in machine learning models. To address these problems, an oil emulsion deep-learning identification model with spatial-spectral feature fusion is established, and feature bands that can distinguish between crude oil, seawater, water-in-oil emulsion (WO) and oil-in-water emulsion (OW) are filtered based on a standard deviation threshold–mutual information method. Using oil spill airborne hyperspectral data, we conducted identification experiments on oil emulsions in different background waters and under different spatial and temporal conditions, analyzed the transferability of the model, and explored the effects of feature band selection and spectral resolution on the identification of oil emulsions. The results show the following. (1) The standard deviation–mutual information feature selection method is able to effectively extract feature bands that can distinguish between WO, OW, oil slick and seawater. The number of bands was reduced from 224 to 134 after feature selection on the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data and from 126 to 100 on the S185 data. (2) With feature selection, the overall accuracy and Kappa of the identification results for the training area are 91.80% and 0.86, respectively, improved by 2.62% and 0.04, and the overall accuracy and Kappa of the identification results for the migration area are 86.53% and 0.80, respectively, improved by 3.45% and 0.05. (3) The oil emulsion identification model has a certain degree of transferability and can effectively identify oil spill emulsions for AVIRIS data at different times and locations, with an overall accuracy of more than 80%, Kappa coefficient of more than 0.7, and F1 score of 0.75 or more for each category. (4) As the spectral resolution decreasing, the model yields different degrees of misclassification for areas with a mixed distribution of oil slick and seawater or mixed distribution of WO and OW. Based on the above experimental results, we demonstrate that the oil emulsion identification model with spatial–spectral feature fusion achieves a high accuracy rate in identifying oil emulsion using airborne hyperspectral data, and can be applied to images under different spatial and temporal conditions. Furthermore, we also elucidate the impact of factors such as spectral resolution and background water bodies on the identification process. These findings provide new reference for future endeavors in automated marine oil spill detection.
Seasonal influence of freshwater discharge on spatio-temporal variations in primary productivity, sea surface temperature, and euphotic zone depth in the northern Bay of Bengal
Hafez Ahmad, Felix Jose, Md. Simul Bhuyan, Md. Nazrul Islam, Padmanava Dash
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2254-y
[Abstract](37) [FullText HTML](13)
Ocean productivity is the foundation of the marine food web, which continuously removes atmospheric carbon dioxide and supports life at sea and on land. Spatio-temporal variability of net primary productivity (NPP), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), mixed layer depth (MLD), and euphotic zone depth (EZD) in the northern Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the three monsoon seasons were examined in this study based on remote sensing data for the period 2005 to 2020. To compare the NPP distribution between the coastal zones and open BoB, the study area was divided into five zones (Z1-Z5). The results suggest that the most productive Z2 and Z1 are located at the head bay area and are directly influenced by freshwater discharge together with riverine sediment and nutrient loads. Across Z1-Z5, the NPP ranges from 5315.38 mg/(m2·d) to 346.7 mg/(m2·d) (in terms of carbon, since then the same). The highest monthly average NPP of 5315.38 mg/(m2·d) in February and 5039.36 mg/(m2·d) in June were observed from Z2, while the lowest monthly average of 346.72 mg/(m2·d) was observed in March from Z4, which is an oceanic zone. EZD values vary from 6-154 m for the study area, and it has an inverse correlation with NPP concentration. EZD is deeper during the summer season and shallower during the wintertime, with a corresponding increase in productivity. Throughout the year, monthly SST shows slight fluctuation for the entire study area, and statistical analysis showed a significant correlation among NPP, and EZD, overall positive between NPP and MLD, whereas no significant correlation among SSS, and SST for the northern Bay of Bengal. Long-term trends in SST and productivity were significantly positive in head bay zones but negatively productive in the open ocean. The findings in this study on the distribution of NPP, SST, SSS, MLD, and EZD and their seasonal variability in five different zones of BoB can be used to further improve the management of marine resources and overall environmental conditional in response to climate changes in the BoB as they are of utmost relevance to the fisheries for the three bordering countries.
U-Pb zircon ages and petrogeochemistry and tectonic implications of gabbro and granite in southwest Lahad Datu area of Sabah, Malaysia
Zhigang Zhao, Wu Tang, Shixiang Liu, Huafeng Tang, Pujun Wang, Zhiwen Tian
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML](10)
The southwest Lahad Datu felsic rocks were previously thought to have formed in the late Late Triassic as part of the microcontinental crystalline basement. Based on U-Pb ages, geochemistry, and the Hf isotopes of zircon from the southeastern Sabah gabbro and granite, in this study, the tectonic properties of the Sabah area during the Triassic were investigated. The weighted average U-Pb zircon ages of the gabbro and granite samples were determined to be 230.9±2.5Ma and 207.1±3.3Ma, respectively. The granite had SiO2 contents of 66.54–79.47%, low TiO2 contents of 0.08–0.3%, Al2O3 contents of 10.97–16.22%, Na2O contents of 5.91–6.39%, and low K2O contents of 0.15–0.65%. The Chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns exhibit light REE enrichment, with right-sloping curves. The primitive mantle-normalized trace element spider diagrams exhibit Th, U, La, Sr, and Zr enrichment and Nb, Ta, P and Ti depletions, i.e., the geochemical characteristics of typical island arc igneous rocks. The tectonic discriminant diagram indicates that the granite is a volcanic arc granite. The Hf isotopic analysis of gabbro zircon revealed that the zircons have εHf(t) values of 12.08–16.24 (mean of 14.32) and two-stage model ages (tDM2) of 223–491 Ma (mean of 347 Ma). This indicates that the diagenetic magma of the gabbro was mainly derived from melting of newly formed crustal materials. The ophiolite in southeast Sabah has existed since the early Late Triassic. The crystalline basement granite in southeastern Sabah was emplaced lasted from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. Based on previous studies and global plate reconstruction models, it is speculated that the southeastern Sabah granite may have been formed in an island arc setting, i.e., where the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean collided with the oceanic crust of the Panthalassa Ocean.
Inter-annual variations of dissolved oxygen and hypoxia off the northern Changjiang River (Yangtze River) Estuary in summer from 1997 to 2014
Anqi Liu, Feng Zhou, Xiao Ma, Qiang Zhao, Guanghong Liao, Yuntao Zhou, Di Tian, Xiaobo Ni, Ruibin Ding
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2244-0
[Abstract](110) [FullText HTML](49)
Hypoxia off the Changjiang River Estuary has been the subject of much attention, yet systematic observations have been lacking, resulting in a lack of knowledge regarding its long-term change and drivers. By revisiting the repeated surveys of dissolved oxygen (DO) and other relevant hydrographic parameters along the section from the Changjiang River Estuary to the Cheju Island in the summer from 1997 to 2014, rather different trends were revealed for the dual low-DO cores. The nearshore low-DO core, located close to the river mouth and relatively stable, shows that hypoxia has become more severe with the lowest DO descending at a rate of −0.07 mg/(L·a) and the thickness of low-DO zone rising at a rate of 0.43 m/a. The offshore core, centered around 40-m isobath but moving back and forth between 123.5°–125°E, shows large fluctuations in the minimum DO concentration, with the thickness of low-DO zone falling at a rate of −1.55 m/a. The probable factors affecting the minimum DO concentration in the two regions also vary. In the nearshore region, the decreasing minimum DO is driven by the increase in both stratification and primary productivity, with the enhanced extension of the Changjiang River Diluted Water (CDW) strengthening stratification. In the offshore region, the fluctuating trend of the minimum DO concentration indicates that both DO loss and DO supplement are distinct. The DO loss is primarily attributed to bottom apparent oxygen utilization caused by the organic matter decay and is also relevant to the advection of low-DO water from the nearshore region. The DO supplement is primarily due to weakened stratification. Our analysis also shows that the minimum DO concentration in the nearshore region was extremely low in 1998, 2003, 2007 and 2010, related to El Niño signal in these summers.
Thermal and exhumation history of the Songnan Low Uplift, Qiongdongnan Basin: constraints from the apatite fission-track and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology
Xiaoyin Tang, Kaixun Zhang, Shuchun Yang, Shuai Guo, Xinyan Zhao, Zhizhao Bai
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2253-z
[Abstract](177) [FullText HTML](78)

Significant advancements have been made in the study of Mesozoic granite buried hills in the Songnan Low Uplift (SNLU) of the Qiongdongnan Basin. These findings indicate that the bedrock buried hills in this basin hold great potential for exploration. Borehole samples taken from the granite buried hills in the SNLU were analyzed using apatite fission track (AFT) and zircon (U-Th)/He data to unravel the thermal history of the basement rock. This information is crucial for understanding the processes of exhumation and alteration that occurred after its formation. Thermal modeling of a sample from the western bulge of the SNLU revealed a prolonged cooling event from the late Mesozoic to the Oligocene period (~80−23.8 Ma), followed by a heating stage from the Miocene epoch until the present (~23.8 Ma to present). In contrast, the sample from the eastern bulge experienced a more complex thermal history. It underwent two cooling stages during the late Mesozoic to late Eocene period (~80−36.4 Ma) and the late Oligocene period (~30−23.8 Ma), interspersed with two heating phases during the late Eocene to early Oligocene period (~36.4−30 Ma) and the Miocene epoch to recent times (~23.8−0 Ma), respectively. The differences in exhumation histories between the western and eastern bulges during the late Eocene to Oligocene period in the SNLU can likely be attributed to differences in fault activity. Unlike typical passive continental margin basins, the SNLU has experienced accelerated subsidence after the rifting phase, which began around 5.2 Ma ago. The possible mechanism for this abnormal post-rifting subsidence may be the decay or movement of the deep thermal source and the rapid cooling of the asthenosphere. Long-term and multi-episodic cooling and exhumation processes play a key role in the alteration of bedrock and contribute to the formation of reservoirs. On the other hand, rapid post-rifting subsidence (sedimentation) promotes the formation of cap rocks.

On the Longitudinal Shifts of the Agulhas Retroflection Point
Weiwei Zhang, Xiao-Yi Yang, Wei Zhuang, Xiao-Hai Yan
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2295-x
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML](13)
The Agulhas system is the strongest western boundary current system in the Southern Hemisphere and plays an important role in modulating the Indian-to-Atlantic Ocean water exchange by the Agulhas leakage. It is difficult to measure in situ transport of the Agulhas leakage as well as the Agulhas retroflection position due to their intermittent nature. In this study, an innovative kinematic algorithm is designed and applied to the gridded altimeter observational data, to ascertain the longitudinal position of Agulhas retroflection, the stability of Agulhas jet stream, as well as its strength. The results show that the east-west shift of retroflection is related neither to the strength of Agulhas current nor to its stability. Further analysis uncovers the connection between the westward extension of Agulhas jet stream and an anomalous cyclonic circulation at its northern side, which is likely attributed to the local wind stress curl anomaly. To confirm the effect of local wind forcing on the east-west shift of retroflection, numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted. The results show that the local wind stress can induce a similar longitudinal shift of the retroflection as altimetry observations. Further statistical and case study indicates that whether an Agulhas ring can continuously migrate westward to the Atlantic Ocean or re-merge into the main flow depends on the retroflection position. Therefore, the westward retroflection may contribute to a stronger Agulhas leakage than the eastward retroflection.
Characteristics and triggering mechanisms of early negative Indian Ocean Dipole
Yue Fang, Shuangwen Sun, Yongcan Zu, Jianhu Wang, Lin Feng
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2294-y
[Abstract](76) [FullText HTML](34)
Negative Indian Ocean Dipole (nIOD) can exert great impacts on global climate and can also strongly influence the climate in China. Early nIOD is a major type of nIOD, which can induce more pronounced climate anomalies in summer than La Niña-related nIOD. However, the characteristics and triggering mechanism of early nIOD is unclear. Our results based on reanalysis datasets indicate that the early nIOD and La Niña-related nIOD are the two major types of nIOD, and the former accounts for over one third of all the nIOD events in the past six decades. These two types of nIODs are similar in their intensities, but are different in their spatial patterns and seasonal cycles. The early nIOD, which develops in spring and peaks in summer, is one season earlier than the La Niña-related nIOD. The spatial pattern of the wind anomaly associated with early nIOD exhibits a winter monsoon-like pattern, with strong westerly anomalies in the equatorial Indian Ocean and eastly anomalies in the northern Indian Ocean. Opposite to the triggering mechanism of early positve IOD (pIOD), the early nIOD is induced by delayed Indian summer monsoon onset. The results of this study are helpful for improving the prediction skill of IOD and its climate impacts.
Seasonal variation of mesoscale eddy intensity in the global ocean
Yongcan Zu, Yue Fang, Shuangwen Sun, Libao Gao, Yang Yang, Guijun Guo
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2278-3
[Abstract](424) [FullText HTML](208) [PDF 6986KB](29)
Mesoscale eddies are a prominent oceanic phenomenon that plays an important role in oceanic mass transport and energy conversion. Characterizing by rotational speed, the eddy intensity is one of the most fundamental properties of an eddy. However, the seasonal spatiotemporal variation in eddy intensity has not been examined from a global ocean perspective. In this study, we unveil the seasonal spatiotemporal characteristics of eddy intensity in the global ocean by using the latest satellite-altimetry-derived eddy trajectory data set. The results suggest that the eddy intensity has a distinct seasonal variation, reaching a peak in spring while attaining a minimum in autumn in the Northern Hemisphere and the opposite in the Southern Hemisphere. The seasonal variation of eddy intensity is more intense in the tropical-subtropical transition zones within latitudinal bands between 15° and 30° in the Western Pacific Ocean, the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and the Eastern Indian Ocean because baroclinic instability in these areas changes sharply. Further analysis found that the seasonal variation of baroclinic instability precedes the eddy intensity by a phase lag of 2–3 months due to the initial perturbations needing time to grow into mesoscale eddies.
A VGGNet-based correction for satellite altimetry-derived gravity anomalies to improve the accuracy of bathymetry to depths of 6 500 m
Xiaolun Chen, Xiaowen Luo, Ziyin Wu, Xiaoming Qin, Jihong Shang, Huajun Xu, Bin Li, Mingwei Wang, Hongyang Wan
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2203-9
[Abstract](244) [FullText HTML](97)
Understanding the topographic patterns of the seafloor is a very important part of understanding our planet. Although the science involved in bathymetric surveying has advanced much over the decades, less than 20% of the seafloor has been precisely modeled to date, and there is an urgent need to improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty of underwater survey data. In this study, we introduce a pretrained visual geometry groupnetwork (VGGNet) method based on deep learning. To apply this method, we input gravity anomaly data derived from ship measurements and satellite altimetry into the model and correct the latter, which has a larger spatial coverage, based on the former, which is considered the true value and is more accurate. After obtaining the corrected high-precision gravity model, it is inverted to the corresponding bathymetric model by applying the gravity-depth correlation. We choose four data pairs collected from different environments, i.e., the Southern Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, to evaluate the topographic correction results of the model. The experiments show that the coefficient of determination (R2) reaches 0.834 among the results of the four experimental groups, signifying a high correlation. The standard deviation and normalized root mean square error are also evaluated, and the accuracy of their performance improved by up to 24.2% compared with similar research done in recent years. The evaluation of the R2 values at different water depths shows that our model can achieve performance results above 0.90 at certain water depths and can also significantly improve results from mid-water depths when compared to previous research. Finally, the bathymetry corrected by our model is able to show an accuracy improvement level of more than 21% within 1% of the total water depths, which is sufficient to prove that the VGGNet-based method has the ability to perform a gravity-bathymetry correction and achieve outstanding results.
Simulated Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait across the SODA3 products
Tengfei Xu, Zexun Wei, Haifeng Zhao, Shen Guan, Shujiang Li, Guanlin Wang, Fei Teng, Yongchui Zhang, Jing Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2186-6
[Abstract](423) [FullText HTML](184) [PDF 9447KB](23)
The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), which connects the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans, plays important roles in the inter-ocean water exchange and regional or even global climate variability. The Makassar Strait is the main inflow passage of the ITF, carrying about 77% of the total ITF volume transport. In this study, we analyze the simulated ITF in the Makassar Strait in the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 3 (SODA3) datasets. A total of nine ensemble members of the SODA3 datasets, of which are driven by different surface forcings and bulk formulas, and with or without data assimilation, are used in this study. The annual mean water transports (i.e., volume, heat and freshwater) are related to the combination of surface forcing and bulk formula, as well as whether data assimilation is employed. The phases of the seasonal and interannual variability in water transports cross the Makassar Strait, are basically consistent with each other among the SODA3 ensemble members. The interannual variability in Makassar Strait volume and heat transports are significantly correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at time lags of −6 to 7 months. There is no statistically significant correlation between the freshwater transport and the ENSO. The Makassar Strait water transports are not significantly correlated with the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which may attribute to model deficiency in simulating the propagation of semi-annual Kelvin waves from the Indian Ocean to the Makassar Strait.
A positive trend in the stability of global offshore wind energy
Chongwei Zheng
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2187-5
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML](37) [PDF 5580KB](7)
The recognition on the trend of wind energy stability is still extremely rare, although it is closely related to acquisition efficiency, grid connection, equipment lifetime, and costs of wind energy utilization. Using the 40-year (1979–2018) ERA-Interim data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, this study presented the spatial-temporal distribution and climatic trend of the stability of global offshore wind energy as well as the abrupt phenomenon of wind energy stability in key regions over the past 40 years with the climatic analysis method and Mann-Kendall (M-K) test. The results show the following 5 points. (1) According to the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the wind power density, there are six permanent stable zones of global offshore wind energy: the southeast and northeast trade wind zones in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the Southern Hemisphere westerly, and a semi-permanent stable zone (North Indian Ocean). (2) There are six low-value zones for both seasonal variability index (Sv) and monthly variability index (Mv) globally, with a similar spatial distribution as that of the six permanent stable zones. Mv and Sv in the Arabian Sea are the highest in the world. (3) After Cv, Mv and Sv are comprehensively considered, the six permanent stable zones have an obvious advantage in the stability of wind energy over other sea areas, with Cv below 0.8, Mv within 1.0, and Sv within 0.7 all the year round. (4) The global stability of offshore wind energy shows a positive climatic trend for the past four decades. Cv, Mv and Sv have not changed significantly or decreased in most of the global ocean during 1979 to 2018. That is, wind energy is flat or more stable, while the monthly and seasonal variabilities tend to shrink/smooth, which is beneficial for wind energy utilization. (5) Cv in the low-latitude Pacific and Mv and Sv in both the North Indian and the low-latitude Pacific have an obvious abrupt phenomenon at the end of the 20th century.
Observation of Arctic surface currents using data from a surface drifting buoy
Hongxia Chen, Lina Lin, Long Fan, Wangxiao Yang, Yinke Dou, Bingrui Li, Yan He, Bin Kong, Guangyu Zuo, Na Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2202-x
[Abstract](88) [FullText HTML](38)
During the 10th Chinese Arctic scientific expedition carried out in the summer of 2019, the surface current in the high-latitude areas of the Arctic Ocean was observed using a self-developed surface drifting buoy, which was initially deployed in the Chukchi Sea. The buoy traversed the Chukchi Sea, Chukchi Abyssal Plain, Mendeleev Ridge, Makarov Basin, and Canada Basin over a period of 632 d. After returning to the Mendeleev Ridge, it continued to drift toward the pole. Overall, the track of the buoy reflected the characteristics of the transpolar drift and Chukchi Slope Current, as well as the inertial flow, cross-ridge surface flow, and even the surface disorganized flow for some time intervals. The results showed that (1) the transpolar drift mainly occurs in the Chukchi Abyssal Plain, Mendeleev Ridge, and western Canada Basin to the east of the ridge where sea ice concentration is high, and the average northward flow velocity in the region between 79.41°N and 86.32°N was 5.1 cm/s; (2) the average surface velocity of the Chukchi Slope Current was 13.5 cm/s and, while this current moves westward along the continental slope, it also extends northwestward across the continental slope and flows to the deep sea; and (3) when sea ice concentration was less than 50%, the inertial flow was more significant (the maximum observed inertial flow was 26 cm/s, and the radius of the inertia circle was 3.6 km).
The connection of phytoplankton biomass in the Marguerite Bay polynya of the western Antarctic Peninsula to the Southern Annular Mode
Ning Jiang, Zhaoru Zhang, Ruifeng Zhang, Chuning Wang, Meng Zhou
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2201-y
[Abstract](372) [FullText HTML](160) [PDF 2731KB](40)
Antarctic coastal polynyas are biological hotspots in the Southern Ocean that support the abundance of high-trophic-level predators and are important for carbon cycling in the high-latitude oceans. In this study, we examined the interannual variation of summertime phytoplankton biomass in the Marguerite Bay polynya (MBP) in the western Antarctic Peninsula area, and linked such variability to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) that dominated the southern hemisphere extratropical climate variability. Combining satellite data, atmosphere reanalysis products and numerical simulations, we found that the interannual variation of summer chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in the MBP is significantly and negatively correlated with the spring SAM index, and weakly correlated with the summer SAM index. The negative relation between summer Chl-a and spring SAM is due to weaker spring vertical mixing under a more positive SAM condition, which would inhibit the supply of iron from deep layers into the surface euphotic layer. The negative relation between spring mixing and spring SAM results from greater precipitation rate over the MBP region in positive SAM phase, which leads to lower salinity in the ocean surface layer. The coupled physical-biological mechanisms between SAM and phytoplankton biomass revealed in this study is important for us to predict the future variations of phytoplankton biomasses in Antarctic polynyas under climate change.
Synthesizing high-resolution satellite salinity data based on multi-fractal fusion
Hengqian Yan, Jian Shi, Ren Zhang, Wangjiang Hu, Yongchui Zhang, Mei Hong
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2209-3
[Abstract](74) [FullText HTML](35)
The spaceborne platform has unprecedently provided the global eddy-permitting (typically ~0.25°) products of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS), however the existing SSS products can hardly resolve mesoscale motions due to the heavy noises therein and the over-smoothing in denoising processes. By means of the Multi-fractal Fusion (MFF), the high-resolution SSS product is synthesized with the template of Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Two low-resolution SSS products and four SST products are considered as the source data and the templates respectively to determine the best combination. The fused products are validated by the in situ observations and intercompared via SSS maps, Singularity Exponent maps and wavenumber spectra. The results demonstrate that the MFF can perform a good work in mitigating the noises and improving the resolution. The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) SSS + the REMote Sensing System (REMSS) SST can produce the 0.1° denoised product whose global mean STandard Derivation (STD) against Argo is 0.21 psu and the feature resolution can reach 30-40 km.
Parameterization, Sensitivity, and Uncertainty of 1-D Thermodynamic Thin-ice Thickness Retrieval
Tianyu Zhang, Mohammed Shokr, Zhida Zhang, Fengming Hui, Xiao Cheng, Zhilun Zhang, Jiechen Zhao, Chunlei Mi
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2210-x
[Abstract](137) [FullText HTML](57)
Retrieval of thin-ice thickness (TIT) using thermodynamic modeling is sensitive to the parameterization of the independent variables (coded in the model) and the uncertainty of the measured input variables. This article examines the deviation of the classical model’s TIT output when using different parameterization schemes and the sensitivity of the output to the ice thickness. Moreover, it estimates the uncertainty of the output in response to the uncertainties of the input variables. The parameterized independent variables include atmospheric longwave emissivity, air density, specific heat of air, latent heat of ice, conductivity of ice, snow depth, and snow conductivity. Measured input parameters include air temperature, ice surface temperature, and wind speed. Among the independent variables, the results show that the highest deviation is caused by adjusting the parameterization of snow conductivity and depth, followed ice conductivity. The sensitivity of the output TIT to ice thickness is highest when using parameterization of ice conductivity, atmospheric emissivity, and snow conductivity and depth. The retrieved TIT obtained using each parameterization scheme is validated using in situ measurements and satellite-retrieved data. From in situ measurements, the uncertainties of the measured air temperature and surface temperature are found to be high. The resulting uncertainties of TIT are evaluated using perturbations of the input data selected based on the probability distribution of the measurement error. The results show that the overall uncertainty of TIT to air temperature, surface temperature, and wind speed uncertainty is around 0.09 m, 0.049 m, and −0.005 m, respectively.
The variation in basal channels and basal melt rates of Pine Island Ice Shelf
Mingliang Liu, Zemin Wang, Baojun Zhang, Xiangyu Song, Jiachun An
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2271-x
[Abstract](76) [FullText HTML](31)
In recent years, there has been a significantly acceleration in the thinning, calving and retreat of the Pine Island Ice Shelf (PIIS). The basal channels, results of enhanced basal melting, have the potential to significantly impact the stability of the PIIS. In this study, we used a variety of remote sensing data, including Landsat, REMA DEM, ICESat-1 and ICESat-2 satellite altimetry observations, and IceBridge airborne measurements, to study the spatiotemporal changes in the basal channels from 2003 to 2020 and basal melt rate from 2010 to 2017 of the PIIS under the Eulerian framework. We found that the basal channels are highly developed in the PIIS, with a total length exceeding 450 km. Most of the basal channels are ocean-sourced or grounding-line-sourced basal channels, caused by the rapid melting under the ice shelf or near the grounding-line. A raised seabed prevented warm water intrusion into the eastern branch of the PIIS, resulting in a lower basal melt rate in that area. In contrast, a deep-sea trough facilitates warm sea water into the mainstream and the western branch of the PIIS, resulting in a higher basal melt rate in the main-stream, and the surface elevation changes above the basal channels of the mainstream and west-ern branch are more significant. The El Niño event in 2015–2016 possibly slowed down the basal melting of the PIIS by modulating wind field, surface sea temperature and depth seawater temperature. Ocean and atmospheric changes were driven by El Niño, which can further explain and confirm the changes in the basal melting of the PIIS.
A case study of continental shelf waves in the northwestern South China Sea induced by winter storms in 2021
Junyi Li, Chen Zhou, Min Li, Quanan Zheng, Mingming Li, Lingling Xie
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2150-5
[Abstract](270) [FullText HTML](110) [PDF 4310KB](15)
This study aims to investigate characteristics of continental shelf wave (CSW) on the northwestern continental shelf of the South China Sea (SCS) induced by winter storms in 2021. Mooring and cruise observations, tidal gauge data at stations Hong Kong, Zhapo and Qinglan and sea surface wind data from January 1 to February 28, 2021 are used to examine the relationship between along-shelf wind and sea level fluctuation. Two events of CSWs driven by the along-shelf sea surface wind are detected from wavelet spectra of tidal gauge data. The signals are triply peaked at periods of 56 h, 94 h and 180 h, propagating along the coast with phase speed ranging from 6.9 m/s to18.9 m/s. The dispersion relation shows their property of the Kelvin mode of CSW. We develop a simple method to estimate amplitude of sea surface fluctuation by along-shelf wind. The results are comparable with the observation data, suggesting it is effective. The mode 2 CSWs fits very well with the mooring current velocity data. The results from rare current help to understand wave-current interaction in the northwestern SCS.
Predictability of the upper ocean heat content in a Community Earth System Model ensemble prediction system
Ting Liu, Wenxiu Zhong
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2239-x
[Abstract](123) [FullText HTML](50)
Upper ocean heat content (OHC) has been widely recognized as a crucial precursor to high-impact climate variability, especially for that being indispensable to the long-term memory of the ocean. Assessing the predictability of OHC using state-of-the-art climate models is invaluable for improving and advancing climate forecasts. Recently developed retrospective forecast experiments, based on a Community Earth System Model ensemble prediction system, offer a great opportunity to comprehensively explore OHC predictability. Our results indicate that the skill of actual OHC predictions varies across different oceans and diminishes as the lead time of prediction extends. The spatial distribution of the actual prediction skill closely resembles the corresponding persistence skill, indicating that the persistence of OHC serves as the primary predictive signal for its predictability. The decline in actual prediction skill is more pronounced in the Indian and Atlantic oceans than in the Pacific Ocean, particularly within tropical regions. Additionally, notable seasonal variations in the actual prediction skills across different oceans align well with the phase-locking features of OHC variability. The potential predictability of OHC generally surpasses the actual prediction skill at all lead times, highlighting significant room for improvement in current OHC predictions, especially for the North Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. Achieving such improvements necessitates a collaborative effort to enhance the quality of ocean observations, develop effective data assimilation methods, and reduce model bias.
Spatiotemporal variation and freeze-thaw asymmetry of Arctic sea ice in multiple dimensions from 1979 to 2020
Yu Guo, Xiaoli Wang, He Xu, Xiyong Hou
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2296-9
[Abstract](58) [FullText HTML](27)
Arctic sea ice is broadly regarded as an indicator and amplifier of global climate change. The rapid changes in Arctic sea ice have been widely concerned. However, the spatiotemporal changes in the horizontal and vertical dimensions of Arctic sea ice and its asymmetry during the melt and freeze seasons are rarely quantified simultaneously based on multiple sources of the same long time series. In this study, the spatiotemporal variation and freeze-thaw asymmetry of Arctic sea ice were investigated from both the horizontal and vertical dimensions during 1979–2020 based on remote sensing and assimilation data. The results indicated that Arctic sea ice was declining at a remarkably high rate of –5.4 × 104 km2/a in sea ice area (SIA) and –2.2 cm/a in sea ice thickness (SIT) from 1979 to 2020, and the reduction of SIA and SIT was the largest in summer and the smallest in winter. Spatially, compared with other sub-regions, SIA showed a sharper declining trend in the Barents Sea, Kara Sea, and East Siberian Sea, while SIT presented a larger downward trend in the northern Canadian Archipelago, northern Greenland, and the East Siberian Sea. Regarding to the seasonal trend of sea ice on sub-region scale, the reduction rate of SIA exhibited an apparent spatial heterogeneity among seasons, especially in summer and winter, i.e., the sub-regions linked to the open ocean exhibited a higher decline rate in winter; however, the other sub-regions blocked by the coastlines presented a greater decline rate in summer. For SIT, the sub-regions such as the Beaufort Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Central Arctic, and Canadian Archipelago always showed a higher downward rate in all seasons. Furthermore, a striking freeze-thaw asymmetry of Arctic sea ice was also detected. Comparing sea ice changes in different dimensions, sea ice over most regions in the Arctic showed an early retreat and rapid advance in the horizontal dimension but late melting and gradual freezing in the vertical dimension. The amount of sea ice melting and freezing was disequilibrium in the Arctic during the considered period, and the rate of sea ice melting was 0.3 × 104 km2/a and 0.01 cm/a higher than that of freezing in the horizontal and vertical dimensions, respectively. Moreover, there were notable shifts in the melting and freezing of Arctic sea ice in 1997/2003 and 2000/2004, respectively, in the horizontal/vertical dimension.
Application of the finite analytic numerical method to a flow-dependent variational data assimilation
Yan Hu, Wei Li, Xuefeng Zhang, Guimei Liu, Liang Zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2229-z
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML](9)
An anisotropic diffusion filter can be used to model a flow-dependent background error covariance matrix, which can be achieved by solving the advection-diffusion equation. Because of the directionality of the advection term, the discrete method needs to be chosen very carefully. The finite analytic method is an alternative scheme to solve the advection-diffusion equation. As a combination of analytical and numerical methods, it not only has high calculation accuracy but also holds the characteristic of the auto upwind. To demonstrate its ability, the one-dimensional steady and unsteady advection-diffusion equation numerical examples are respectively solved by the finite analytic method. The more widely used upwind difference method is used as a control approach. The result indicates that the finite analytic method has higher accuracy than the upwind difference method. For the two-dimensional case, the finite analytic method still has a better performance. In the three-dimensional variational assimilation experiment, the finite analytic method can effectively improve analysis field accuracy, and its effect is significantly better than the upwind difference and the central difference method. Moreover, it is still a more effective solution method in the strong flow region where the advective-diffusion filter performs most prominently.
The environmental analysis and site selection of mussel and large yellow croaker aquaculture areas based on high resolution remote sensing
Lina Cai, Jie Yin, Xiaojun Yan, Yongdong Zhou, Rong Tang, Menghan Yu
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2284-5
[Abstract](84) [FullText HTML](38)
Mussel aquaculture and large yellow croaker aquaculture areas and their environmental characteristics in Zhoushan were analyzed using satellite data and in-situ surveys. A new two-step remote sensing method was proposed and applied to determine the basic environmental characteristics of the best mussel and large yellow croaker aquaculture areas. This methodology includes the first step of extraction of the location distribution and the second step of the extraction of internal environmental factors. The Fishery Ranching Index (FRI1, FRI2) was established to extract the mussel and the large yellow croaker aquaculture area in Zhoushan, using GF-1 (Gaofen-1) and GF-6 (Gaofen-6) satellite data with a special resolution of 2 m. In the second step, the environmental factors such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration, current and tide, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in mussel aquaculture area and large yellow croaker aquaculture area were extracted and analyzed in detail. The results show that: (1) For the extraction of the mussel aquaculture area, FRI1 and FRI2 are complementary, and the combination of FRI1 and FRI2 is suitable to extract the mussel aquaculture area. As for the large yellow croaker aquaculture area extraction, FRI2 is suitable. (2) Mussel aquaculture and the large yellow croaker aquaculture area in Zhoushan are mainly located on the side near the islands that are away from the eastern open waters. The water environment factor template suitable for mussel and large yellow croaker aquaculture was determined. (3) This two-step remote sensing method can be used for the preliminary screening of potential site selection for the mussels and large yellow croaker aquaculture area in the future. The Fishery Ranching Index (FRI1, FRI2) in this paper can be applied to extract the mussel and large yellow croaker aquaculture areas in coastal waters around the world.
Influence of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) on Antarctic surface air temperature between 1900 and 2015
Cuijuan Sui, Lejiang Yu, Alexey Yu. Karpechko, Licheng Feng, Shan Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2247-x
[Abstract](47) [FullText HTML](20)
The importance of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) in influencing zonally asymmetric changes in Antarctic surface air temperature (SAT) has been established. However, previous studies have primarily concentrated on examining the combined impact of the contrasting phases of the AMO and IPO, which have been dominant since the advent of satellite observations in 1979. This study utilizes long-term reanalysis data to investigate the impact of four combinations of +AMO+IPO, –AMO–IPO, +AMO–IPO, and –AMO+IPO on Antarctic SAT over the past 115 years. The +AMO phase is characterized by a spatial mean temperature amplitude of up to 0.5°C over the North Atlantic Ocean, accompanied by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical eastern Pacific and negative SST anomalies in the extratropical-mid-latitude western Pacific, which are indicative of the +IPO phase. The Antarctic SAT exhibits contrasting spatial patterns during the +AMO+IPO and +AMO–IPO periods. However, during the –AMO+IPO period, apart from the Antarctic Peninsula and the vicinity of the Weddell Sea, the entire Antarctic region experiences a warming trend. The most pronounced signal in the SAT anomalies is observed during the austral autumn (AMJ), whereas the combination of –AMO and –IPO exhibits the smallest magnitude across all the combinations. The wavetrain excited by the SST anomalies associated with the AMO and IPO induces upper-level and surface atmospheric circulation anomalies, which alter the SAT anomalies. Furthermore, downward longwave radiation anomalies related to anomalous cloud cover play a crucial role. In the future, if the phases of AMO and IPO were to reverse (AMO transitioning to a negative phase and IPO transitioning to a positive phase), Antarctica could potentially face more pronounced warming and accelerated melting compared to the current observations.
The significant role of submarine groundwater discharge in an Arctic fjord nutrient budget
Xueqing Yu, Jianan Liu, Zhuoyi Zhu, Xiaogang Chen, Tong Peng, Jinzhou Du
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2282-7
[Abstract](52) [FullText HTML](23)
Under global climate change, water flow and related nutrient biogeochemistry in the Arctic are changing at an unprecedented rate, and potentially affect nutrient cycling in the Arctic Ocean. However, nutrient fluxes via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) are potentially important yet poorly understood in the Arctic. Here we quantified that nutrient fluxes through radium-derived SGD were three orders of magnitude higher than those from the local river and constituted 25-96% of the total nutrient inputs into the Kongsfjorden. These large groundwater nutrient fluxes with high N/P ratio (average 99) may change the biomass and community structure of phytoplankton. Meanwhile, combining other SGD study cases around the Arctic region, SGD rates tend to increase over the past three decades, possibly on account of the effects of global warming. The SGD-derived nutrient may cause the increase of net primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean. The results will provide important basic data for land-ocean interactions in the typical fjord of the Arctic under the influence of global warming.
Gene characterization and phylogenetic analysis of four mitochondrial genomes in Caenogastropoda
Jiangyong Qu, Wanqi Yang, Xindong Teng, Li Xu, Dachuan Zhang, Zhikai Xing, Shuang Wang, Xiumei Liu, Lijun Wang, Xumin Wang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2258-7
[Abstract](64) [FullText HTML](30)
Caenogastropoda is a highly diverse group, containing ~60% of all existing gastropods. Species in this subclass predominantly inhabit marine environments and have a high ecological and economic value. Owing to the increase in relevant phylogenetic studies, our understanding of between species relatedness in Caenogastropoda has improved. However, the biodiversity, taxonomic status, and phylogenetic relationships of this group remain unclear. In the present study, we performed next-generation sequencing of four complete mitochondrial genomes from three families (Buccinidae, Columbellidae, and Cypraeidae) and the four mitogenomes were classical circular structures, with a length of 16,177 bp in Volutharpa ampullacea, 16,244 bp in Mitrella albuginosa, 16,926 bp in Mauritia arabica asiatica and 15,422 bp in Erronea errones. Base composition analysis indicated that whole sequences were biased toward A and T. Then compared them with 171 complete mitochondrial genomes of Caenogastropoda. The phylogenetic relationship of Caenogastropoda derived from Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) trees constructed based on CDS sequences was consistent with the results of traditional morphological analysis, with all three families showing close relationships. This study supported Caenogastropoda at the molecular level as a separate clade of Mollusca. According to our divergence time estimations, Caenogastropoda was formed during the Middle Triassic period (~247.2-237 Ma). Our novel mitochondrial genomes provide evidence for the speciation of Caenogastropoda in addition to elucidating the mitochondrial genomic evolution of this subclass.
Yuzaoea gen. nov., a new biraphid diatom (Bacillariophyceae) genus and its phylogenetic significance
Honghan Liu, Chenhong Li, Lang Li, Xuesong Li, Lin Sun, Junrong Liang, Jun Zhang, Yahui Gao, and Changping Chen
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML](10)
The flexed frustules in pennate diatoms are usually associated with monoraphid diatoms. Interestingly, we found a biraphid diatom species with flexed frustules in an offshore intertidal beach environment on Weizhou Island, Beibu Gulf, Beihai City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Therefore, based on morphological characteristics, we described a new genus of diatoms Yuzaoea sinensis gen. et sp. nov. CH Li, HH Liu, YH Gao & CP Chen. The frustule of this genus is characterized by heterogeneous frustule with one concave valve and one convex valve, complete raphe on both valves, straight and moderately eccentric raphe, uniseriate striae and girdle bands with a single row of areolae. The most identifying feature of this genus was the flexed frustule, which is rare in biraphid diatoms and common in monoraphid diatoms. We compared the morphometric characteristics of genus Yuzaoea with genus Rhoikoneis and several genera within the family Rhoicospheniaceae, including Rhoicosphenia, Campylopyxis, and Cuneolus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA and rbcL showed that the genus Yuzaoea was the sister group to the clade of Rhoicosphenia with a high support value (Bootstrap values = 100%), and the clade “Yuzaoea+Rhoicosphenia” was sister to the clade of monoraphid diatoms, in which the genus Achnanthidium, Planothidium and some Cocconeis with high support values (bs = 100%). Morphologically, the genus Yuzaoea shares many morphological features with monoraphid diatoms like genera Achnanthidium and Planothidium and the members within the Rhoicospheniaceae. Therefore, based on a combined morphological studies and phylogenetic results we suggested that this branch may represented the evolution of one kind monoraphid diatoms, from biraphid diatoms (e.g. genus Yuzaoea), to incompleted biraphid diatoms (e.g. genera Rhoicosphenia, Campylopyxis), to monoraphid diatoms (e.g. genera Achnanthidium and Planothidium).
Effect of particle composition and consolidation degree on the wave-induced liquefaction of soil beds
Zhiyuan Chen, Yupeng Ren, Guohui Xu, Meng Li
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-0000-0
[Abstract](10) [FullText HTML](2)
The wave-induced liquefaction of seabed is responsible for causing damage to marine structures. Particle composition and consolidation degree are the key factors affecting the pore water pressure response and liquefaction behavior of the seabed under wave action. The present study conducted wave flume experiments on silt and silty fine sand beds with varying particle compositions. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of the differences and underlying reasons for liquefaction behavior in two different types of soil was conducted from both macroscopic and microscopic perspectives. The experimental results indicate that the silt bed necessitates a lower wave load intensity to attain the liquefaction state in comparison to the silty fine sand bed. Additionally, the duration and development depth of liquefaction are greater in the silt bed. The dissimilarity in liquefaction behavior between the two types of soil can be attributed to the variation in their permeability and plastic deformation capacity. The permeability coefficient and compression modulus of silt are lower than those of silty fine sand. Consequently, silt is more prone to the accumulation of pore pressure and subsequent liquefaction under external loading. Prior research has demonstrated that silt beds with varying consolidation degrees exhibit distinct initial failure modes. Specifically, a dense bed undergoes shear failure, whereas a loose bed experiences initial liquefaction failure. This study utilized discrete element simulation to examine the microscopic mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon.
Parent-offspring relationship recognition based on SSR and mtDNA confirmed resource supplement effect of Fenneropenaeus chinensis release
Song Sun, Ding Lyu, Xianshi Jin, Xiujuan Shan, Weiji Wang
[Abstract](26) [FullText HTML](13)
The resource of Fenneropenaeus chinensis has declined sharply due to excessive fishing intensity, ecological changes and diseases. In order to supplement the fishing yield and restore resources of F. chinensis, the relevant authorities have carried out the activities of stock enhancement and releasing. It can increase biomass and recover resources. However, compared with increasing biomass, there were still few reports on its effect on the recovery of resources. Resource recovery is a process related to whether the released individuals can form a reproductive population. Up to now, there has been a lack of evidence whether the released F. chinensis can complete the entire life history, and form reproduction population. In this study, gravid female shrimp after spawning migration were captured from coastal waters of Haiyang, Qingdao, and Yellow Sea. After identifying parentage relationships using SSR and mtDNA haplotype, it was finally confirmed that there were eight released individuals in the recapture samples. It was confirmed for the first time that at least part of the released F. chinensis can complete overwintering and reproductive migration, and maintain the migration habits as their wild counterparts. Therefore, we infered that the released shrimp can reproduce under natural conditions, these F. chinensis can form reproductive populations theoretically if without human intervention. These results indicated that enhancenment and release activities have a positive effect on resource recovery.
A multi-scale second-order autoregressive recursive filter approach for the sea ice concentration analysis
Lu Yang, Xuefeng Zhang
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2297-8
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](14)
To effectively extract multi-scale information from observation data and improve computational efficiency, a multi-scale second-order autoregressive recursive filter (MSRF) method is designed. The second-order autoregressive filter used in this study has been attempted to replace the traditional first-order recursive filter used in spatial multi-scale recursive filter (SMRF) method. The experimental results indicate that the MSRF scheme successfully extracts various scale information resolved by observations. Moreover, compared with the SMRF scheme, the MSRF scheme improves computational accuracy and efficiency to some extent. The MSRF scheme can not only propagate to a longer distance without the attenuation of innovation, but also reduce the mean absolute deviation between the reconstructed sea ice concentration results and observations reduced by about 3.2 % compared to the SMRF scheme. On the other hand, compared with traditional first-order recursive filters using in the SMRF scheme that multiple filters are executed, the MSRF scheme only needs to perform two filter processes in one iteration, greatly improving filtering efficiency. In the two-dimensional experiment of sea ice concentration, the calculation time of the MSRF scheme is only 1/7 of that of SMRF scheme. This means that the MSRF scheme can achieve better performance with less computational cost, which is of great significance for further application in real-time ocean or sea ice data assimilation systems in the future.
An ensemble learning method to retrieve sea ice roughness from Sentinel-1 SAR images
Pengyi Chen, Zhongbiao Chen, Runxia Sun, Yijun He
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2248-9
[Abstract](104) [FullText HTML](46)
Sea ice surface roughness (SIR) affects the energy transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, and it is also an important indicator for sea ice characteristics. To obtain a small-scale SIR with high spatial resolution, a novel method is proposed to retrieve SIR from Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, utilizing an ensemble learning method. Firstly, the two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is applied to obtain the spatial information of sea ice, including the scale and direction of ice patterns. Secondly, a model is developed using the Adaboost Regression model to establish a relationship among SIR, radar backscatter and the spatial information of sea ice. The proposed method is validated by using the SIR retrieved from SAR images and comparing it to the measurements obtained by the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) in the summer Beaufort Sea. The determination of coefficient, mean absolute error, root-mean-square error and mean absolute percentage error of the testing data are 0.91, 1.71 cm, 2.82 cm and 36.37%, respectively, which are reasonable. Moreover, K-fold cross-validation and learning curves are analyzed, which also demonstrate the method's applicability in retrieving SIR from SAR images.
Responses of the Southern Ocean mixed layer depth to the Eastern and Central Pacific El Niño events during austral winter
Yuxin Shi, Hailong Liu, Xidong Wang, Quanan Zheng
[Abstract](50) [FullText HTML](25)
Based on the Ocean Reanalysis System version 5 (ORAS5) and the fifth-generation reanalysis datasets (ERA5) derived from Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), we investigate the different impacts of the Central Pacific (CP) El Niño and the Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño on the Southern Ocean (SO) mixed layer depth (MLD) during austral winter. The MLD response to the EP El Niño shows a dipole pattern in the South Pacific, namely the MLD dipole, which is the leading El Niño-induced MLD variability in the SO. The tropical Pacific warm sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) signal associated with the EP El Niño excites a Rossby wave train propagating southeastward and then enhances the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL). This results in an anomalous cyclone over the Amundsen Sea. As a result, the anomalous southerly wind to the west of this anomalous cyclone advects colder and drier air into the southeast of New Zealand, leading to surface cooling through less total surface heat flux, especially surface sensible heat (SH) flux and latent heat (LH) flux, and thus contributing to the ML deepening. The east of the anomalous cyclone brings warmer and wetter air to the southwest of Chile, but the total heat flux anomaly shows no significant change. The warm air promotes the sea ice melting and maintains fresh water, which strengthens stratification. This results in a shallower MLD. During the CP El Niño, the response of MLD shows a separate negative MLD anomaly center in the central South Pacific. The Rossby wave train triggered by the warm SSTA in the central Pacific Ocean spreads to the Amundsen Sea, which weakens the ASL. Therefore, the anomalous anticyclone dominates the Amundsen Sea. Consequently, the anomalous northerly wind to the west of anomalous anticyclone advects warmer and wetter air into the central and southern Pacific, causing surface warming through increased SH, LH and longwave (LW) radiation flux, and thus contributing to the ML shoaling. However, to the east of the anomalous anticyclone, there is no statistically significant impact on the MLD.
Study on the interannual variability of the Kerama Gap transport and its relation to the Kuroshio/Ryukyu Current system
Han Zhou, Kai Yu, Jianhuang Qin, Xuhua Cheng, Meixiang Chen, Changming Dong
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2281-8
[Abstract](217) [FullText HTML](106)
An analysis of a 68-year monthly hindcast output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model reveals the relationship between the interannual variability of the Kerama Gap Transport (KGT) and the Kuroshio/Ryukyu Current system. The study found a significant difference in the interannual variability of the upstream and downstream transports of the East China Sea- (ECS-) Kuroshio and the Ryukyu Current. The interannual variability of the KGT was found to be of paramount importance in causing the differences between the upstream and downstream ECS-Kuroshio. Additionally, it contributed approximately 37% to the variability of the Ryukyu Current. The interannual variability of the KGT was well described by a two-layer rotating hydraulic theory. It was dominated by its subsurface-intensified flow core, and the upper layer transport made a weaker negative contribution to the total KGT. The subsurface flow core was found to be mainly driven by the subsurface pressure head across the Kerama Gap, and the pressure head was further dominated by the subsurface density anomalies on the Pacific side. These density anomalies could be traced back to the eastern open ocean, and their propagation speed was estimated to be about 7.4 km/d, which is consistent with the speed of the local first-order baroclinic Rossby wave. When the negative (positive) density anomaly signal reached the southern region of the Kerama Gap, it triggered the increase (decrease) of the KGT towards the Pacific side and the formation of an anticyclonic (cyclonic) vortex by baroclinic adjustment. Meanwhile, there is an increase (decrease) in the upstream transport of the entire Kuroshio/Ryukyu Current system and an offshore flow that decreases (increases) the downstream Ryukyu Current.
The impact of typhoons on the biogeochemistry of dissolved organic matter in eutrophic bays in northwestern South China Sea
Xuan Lu, Qibin Lao, Fajin Chen, Guangzhe Jin, Chunqing Chen, Qingmei Zhu
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2283-6
[Abstract](209) [FullText HTML](98)
Highly productive estuaries facilitate intense decomposition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as a carbon source. However, the specific impacts of typhoons on DOM decomposition in eutrophic bays remain unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the spectral characteristics of DOM before and after Typhoon “Ewiniar” in Zhanjiang Bay, a eutrophic semi-enclosed bay in the northwestern South China Sea. The results revealed that intense microbial decomposition of DOM occurred during the pre-typhoon period because high nutrient inputs facilitated the mobilization of DOM in the bay. However, the intrusion of external seawater induced by the typhoon diluted the nutrient levels in Zhanjiang Bay, reducing the impact of microbial decomposition on DOM during the post-typhoon period. Nevertheless, the net addition of DOM occurred in Zhanjiang Bay during the post-typhoon period, possibly because of the decomposition of particulate organic matter (POM) and desorption of particulate matter. In addition, an increase in apparent oxygen utilization, a decrease in DO saturation and the reduced level of Chl a indicated that organic matter (OM) decomposition was enhanced and OM decomposition shifted to POM decomposition in Zhanjiang Bay after the typhoon. Overall, our study highlighted the shift in the intense OM decomposition from DOM to POM decomposition before and after typhoons in eutrophic bays, providing new insights into the response of typhoons to biogeochemistry.
U-Pb zircon geochronology of basaltic pyroclastic rocks from the basement beneath the Xisha Islands in the northwestern South China Sea and its geological significance
Yu Zhang, Kefu Yu, Shiying Li
[Abstract](43) [FullText HTML](21)
As one of the micro-blocks dispersed in the South China Sea (SCS), the basement of the Xisha Islands has rarely been drilled because of the thick overlying Cenozoic sediments, which has led to a confused understanding of the pre-Cenozoic basement of the Xisha Islands. Well CK-1, a kilometer-scale major scientific drill in the Xisha Islands in the northwestern SCS, penetrated thick reefal limestone (0–888.4 m) and the underlying basement rocks (888.4–901.4 m). In this study, we present the zircon U-Pb ages of basement basaltic pyroclastic rocks from Well CK-1 in the Xisha Islands of the northwestern SCS to investigate the basement nature of the Xisha micro-block. The basement of Well CK-1 consists of basaltic pyroclastic rocks on the seamount. The zircon grains yielded apparent ages ranging from ca. 2138.9 to ca. 36 Ma. The old group of zircon grains from Well CK-1 was considered to be inherited zircons. Two Cenozoic zircons gave a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 36.3 ± 1.1 Ma (MSWD = 1.2), which may represent the maximum age of the volcano eruption. The Yanshanian inherited zircons (116.9–105.7 Ma and 146.1–130.2 Ma) from Well CK-1 are consistent with the zircons from Well XK-1, indicating that the basement of Chenhang Island may be similar to that of Well XK-1. We propose that the Xisha micro-block may have developed on a uniform Late Jurassic metamorphic crystalline basement, intruded by Cretaceous granitic magma.
Development of SNP parentage assignment techniques in the yellowfin seabream Acanthopagrus latus
Hongbo Zhao, Liangmin Huang, Jing Zhang, Songyuan You, Qingmin Zeng, Xiande Liu
[Abstract](34) [FullText HTML](17)
Acanthopagrus latus is an essential aquaculture species on the south coast of China. However, there is a lack of systematic breeding of A. latus, which considerably limits the sustainable development of A. latus. As a result, genetic improvements are urgently needed to breed new strains of A. latus with rapid growth and strong resistance to disease. During selective breeding, it is necessary to estimate the genetic parameters of the target trait, which in turn depends on an accurate disentangled pedigree for the selective population. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the parentage assignment technique for A. latus. In this study, 95 individuals selected from their parents and their 14 families were used as experimental material. SNPs were developed by genome re-sequencing, and highly polymorphic SNPs were screened on the basis of optimized filtering parameters. A total of 14,392,738 SNPs were discovered and 205 SNPs were selected for parentage assignment using the CERVUS software. In the model where the gender of the parents is known, the assignment success rate is 98.61% for the male parent, 97.22% for the female parent, and 95.83% for the parent pair. In the model where the gender of the parents is unknown, the assignment success rate is 100% for a single parent and 90.28% for the parent pair. The results of this study were expected to serve as a reference for the breeding of new varieties of A.latus.
An improved algorithm for retrieving thin sea ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean from SMOS and SMAP L-band radiometer data
Lian He, Senwen Huang, Fengming Hui, Xiao Cheng
[Abstract](71) [FullText HTML](36)
The aim of this study was to develop an improved thin ice thickness retrieval algorithm in the Arctic Ocean for the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-band radiometer data. This empirical sea ice thickness (SIT) retrieval algorithm was trained using the simulated SIT from the cumulative freezing degree days (CFDD) model during the freeze-up period over 5 carefully selected regions in the Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev and Kara Seas and utilized the microwave polarization ratio (PR) at incidence angle of 40°. The improvements of the proposed retrieval algorithm include the correction for the sea ice concentration impact, reliable reference SIT data over different representative regions of the Arctic Ocean and the utilization of microwave polarization ratio that is independent of ice temperature. The relationship between the SIT and PR was found to be almost stable across the 5 selected regions. The SIT retrievals were then compared to other two existing algorithms (i.e., UH_SIT from the University of Hamburg and UB_SIT from the University of Bremen) and validated against independent SIT data obtain from moored upward looking sonars (ULS) and airborne electromagnetic (EM) induction sensors. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm could achieve comparable accuracies to UH_SIT and UB_SIT with root mean square error (RMSE) being about 0.20 m when validating using ULS SIT data and outperformed the UH_SIT and UB_SIT with RMSE being about 0.21 m when validation using EM SIT data. The proposed algorithm can be used for thin ice thickness (< 1.0 m) estimation in the Arctic Ocean and requires less auxiliary data in the SIT retrieval procedure which makes its implementation more practical.
When river meets ocean: Distribution and conversion of suspended organic particles in a Sundarban mangrove river-estuary system, Bangladesh
Xiaochun Zou, Yunhai Li, Liang Wang, Mohammad Kawser Ahmed, Keliang Chen, Jianwei Wu, Yonghang Xu, Yunpeng Lin, Baohong Chen, Kankan Wu, Jinwen Liu
[Abstract](70) [FullText HTML](34)
Global carbon cycle has received extensive attention, among which the river-estuary system is one of the important links connecting the carbon cycle between land and ocean. In this paper, the distribution and control factors of particulate organic carbon (POC) were studied by using the data of organic carbon contents and its carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) in the mainstream and estuary of Passur River in the Sundarban area, combined with the hydrological and biological data measured by CTD. The results show that POC content ranged from 0.263 to 9.292 mg/L, and the POC content in the river section (averaged 4.129 mg/L) was significantly higher than that in the estuary area (averaged 0.858 mg/L). Two distinct stages of POC transport from land to sea in the Sundarban area were identified. The first stage occurred in the river section, where POC distribution was mainly controlled by the dynamic process of runoff and the organic carbon was mainly terrestrial source. The second stage occurred during estuarine mixing, where the POC distribution was mainly controlled by the mixing process of seawater and freshwater. The source of POC was predominantly marine and exhibiting vertical differences. The surface and middle layers were primarily influenced by marine sources, while the bottom layer was jointly controlled by terrestrial and marine sources of organic carbon. These findings are of great significance for understanding the carbon cycle in such a large mangrove ecosystem like the Sundarban Mangrove.
Prediction of three-dimensional ocean temperature in the South China Sea based on time series gridded data and a dynamic spatiotemporal graph neural network
Feng Nan, Zhuolin Li, Jie Yu, Suixiang Shi, Xinrong Wu, Lingyu Xu
[Abstract](91) [FullText HTML](43)
Ocean temperature is an important physical variable in marine ecosystems, and ocean temperature prediction is an important research objective in ocean-related fields. Currently, one of the commonly used methods for ocean temperature prediction is based on data-driven, but research on this method is mostly limited to the sea surface, with few studies on the prediction of internal ocean temperature. Existing graph neural network-based methods usually use predefined graphs or learned static graphs, which cannot capture the dynamic associations among data. In this study, we propose a novel dynamic spatiotemporal graph neural network (DSTGN) to predict three-dimensional ocean temperature (3D-OT), which combines static graph learning and dynamic graph learning to automatically mine two unknown dependencies between sequences based on the original 3D-OT data without prior knowledge. Temporal and spatial dependencies in the time series were then captured using temporal and graph convolutions. We also integrated dynamic graph learning, static graph learning, graph convolution, and temporal convolution into an end-to-end framework for 3D-OT prediction using time-series grid data. In this study, we conducted prediction experiments using high-resolution 3D-OT from the Copernicus global ocean physical reanalysis, with data covering the vertical variation of temperature from the sea surface to 1,000 m below the sea surface. We compared five mainstream models that are commonly used for ocean temperature prediction, and the results showed that the method achieved the best prediction results at all prediction scales.
Bioturbation coefficients and organic carbon degradation rates of deep-sea sediments in the central-eastern tropical Pacific
Feng Lin, Cai Lin, Xiuwu Sun, Hui Lin, Li Lin, Fangfang Deng, Kaiwen Tan, Peng Lin
[Abstract](63) [FullText HTML](30)
The biogeochemical processes of marine sediments are influenced by bioturbation and organic carbon decomposition, which is crucial for understanding global element cycles and climate change. Two sediment cores were acquired in 2017 from abyssal basins in the central-eastern tropical Pacific to determine the bioturbation and organic carbon degradation processes. The radioactivity concentrations of 210Pb and 226Ra in the sediment cores were measured, indicating the presence of significant excess 210Pb (210Pbex) signals in the sediment cores. Besides, a manganese nodule was discovered in one core, which had a substantial influence on the distribution of 210Pbex. With the exception of this anomalous finding, the bioturbation coefficients in the remaining core were estimated to be 10.6 cm2/a using a steady-state diffusion model, greater than most of the deep-sea sediments from the Equatorial Eastern Pacific. By using a bio-diffusion model, we further calculated the degradation rates of organic carbon (8.02 ka-1), which is also higher than other areas of the Pacific. Our findings displayed the presence of a biologically active benthic ecosystem in the central-eastern tropical Pacific.
Evaluation and projection of marine heatwaves in the South China Sea: insights from CMIP6 multi-model ensemble
Kai Liu, Kang Xu, Tongxin Han, Congwen Zhu, Nina Li, Anboyu Guo, Xiaolu Huang
[Abstract](74) [FullText HTML](37)
This study evaluates the performance of 16 models sourced from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) in simulating marine heatwaves (MHWs) in the South China Sea (SCS) during the historical period (1982−2014), and also investigates future changes in SCS MHWs based on simulations from three Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios (SSP126, SSP245, and SSP585) using CMIP6 models. Results demonstrate that the CMIP6 models perform well in simulating the spatial-temporal distribution and intensity of SCS MHWs, with their multi-model ensemble (MME) results showing the best performance. The reasonable agreement between the observations and CMIP6 MME reveals that the increasing trends of SCS MHWs are attributed to the warming sea surface temperature trend. Under various SSP scenarios, the year 2040 emerges as pivotal juncture for future shifts in SCS MHWs, marked by distinct variations in changing rate and amplitudes. This is characterized by an accelerated decrease in MHWs frequency and a notably heightened increase in mean intensity, duration, and total days after 2040. Furthermore, the projection results for SCS MHWs suggest that the spatial pattern of MHWs remains consistent across future periods. However, the intensity shows higher consistency only during the near-term period (2021−2050), while notable inconsistencies are observed during the medium-term (2041−2700) and long-term (2701−2100) periods under the three SSP scenarios. During the near-term period, the SCS MHWs are characterized by moderate and strong events with high frequencies and relatively shorter durations. In contrast, during the medium-term period, MHWs are also characterized by moderate and strong events, but with longer-lasting and more intense events under the SSP245 and SSP585 scenarios. However, in the long-term period, extreme MHWs become the dominant feature under the SSP585 scenario, indicating a substantial intensification of SCS MHWs, effectively establishing a near-permanent state.
Tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and South China Sea
Chuyue Long, Weiyan Yang, Jiaxun Lu, Yuanyue Cheng, Ning Qiu, Sen Du, Li Zhang, Shejun Chen, Yuxin Sun
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2267-6
[Abstract](123) [FullText HTML](49)
Marine sediments were collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and South China Sea (SCS) to study the occurrence and spatial distribution of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). The levels of TBBPA and HBCDD in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 6.14 ng/g dry weight (dw) and nd to 0.42 ng/g dw. TBBPA concentrations in marine sediments were substantially higher than HBCDD. The concentrations of TBBPA and HBCDD in the PRE sediments were significantly greater than those in the SCS. α-HBCDD (48.7%) and γ-HBCDD (46.2%) were the two main diastereoisomers of HBCDD in sediments from the PRE, with minor contribution of β-HBCDD (5.1%). HBCDD were only found in one sample from the northern SCS. The enantiomeric fraction of α-HBCDD in sediments from the PRE was obviously greater than 0.5, indicating an accumulation of (+)-α-HBCDD. The enantiomers of HBCDD were not measured in sediments from the SCS. This work highlighted the environmental behaviors of TBBPA and HBCDD in marine sediments.
A typhoon-induced storm surge numerical model with GPU acceleration based on an unstructured spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellation grid
Yuanyong Gao, Fujiang Yu, Cifu Fu, Jianxi Dong, Qiuxing Liu
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2175-9
[Abstract](183) [FullText HTML](74)
Storm surge is often the marine disaster that poses the greatest threat to life and property in coastal areas. Accurate and timely issuance of storm surge warnings to take appropriate countermeasures is an important means to reduce storm surge-related losses. Storm surge numerical models are important for storm surge forecasting. To further improve the performance of the storm surge forecast models, we developed a numerical storm surge forecast model based on an unstructured spherical centroidal Voronoi tessellation (SCVT) grid. The model is based on shallow water equations in vector-invariant form, and is discretized by Arakawa C grid. The SCVT grid can not only better describe the coastline information but also avoid rigid transitions, and it has a better global consistency by generating high-resolution grids in the key areas through transition refinement. In addition, the simulation speed of the model is accelerated by using the openACC-based GPU acceleration technology to meet the timeliness requirements of operational ensemble forecast. It only takes 37 seconds to simulate a day in the coastal waters of China. The newly developed storm surge model was applied to simulate typhoon-induced storm surges in the coastal waters of China. The hindcast experiments on the selected representative typhoon-induced storm surge processes indicate that the model can reasonably simulate the distribution characteristics of storm surges. The simulated maximum storm surges and their occurrence times are consistent with the observed data at the representative tide gauge stations, and the mean absolute errors are 3.5 cm and 0.6 h respectively, showing high accuracy and application prospects.
Differences in Spring Precipitation over Southern China associated with Multiyear La Niña Events
Guangliang Li, Licheng Feng, Wei Zhuang, Fei Liu, Ronghua Zhang, Cuijuan Sui
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2147-0
[Abstract](558) [FullText HTML](222)
Composite analyses were performed in this study to reveal the differences in spring precipitation over southern China during multiyear La Niña events from 1901-2015. It was found that there is significantly below normal precipitation in the first boreal spring, but above normal in the second year. The differences in spring precipitation over southern China are correlative to the changes in anomalous atmospheric circulations over the northwest Pacific, which can in turn be attributed to different anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the tropical Pacific. During multiyear La Niña events, anomalous SSTs were stronger in the first spring than those in the second spring. As a result, the intensity of abnormal cyclones (WNPC) in the western North Pacific Ocean (WNP) in the first year is stronger, which is more likely to reduce moisture transport, leading to prolonged precipitation deficits over southern China. In contrast, the tropical SST signal is too weak to induce appreciable changes in the WNPC and precipitation over South China in the second year. The difference in SST signals in two consecutive springs leads to different spatial patterns of precipitation in southern China by causing different WNPC.
Erratum to: Acta Oceanologica Sinica (2022) 41(10): 119–130DOI: 10.1007/s13131-022-2023-3The atmospheric hinder for intraseasonal sea-air interaction over the Bay of Bengal during Indian summer monsoon in CMIP6
Ze Meng, Lei Zhou, Baosheng Li, Jianhuang Qin, Juncheng Xie
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2131-0
[Abstract](197) [FullText HTML](64)
Forecasting the western Pacific subtropical high index during typhoon activity using a hybrid deep learning model
Jianyin Zhou, Jie Xiang, Huadong Du, Suhong Ma
[Abstract](331) [FullText HTML](124)
Seasonal location and intensity changes in the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) are important factors dominating the synoptic weather and the distribution and magnitude of precipitation in the rain belt over East Asia. Therefore, this article delves into the forecast of the western Pacific subtropical high index during typhoon activity by adopting a hybrid deep learning model. Firstly, the predictors, which are the inputs of the model, are analysed based on three characteristics: the first is the statistical discipline of the WPSH index anomalies corresponding to the three types of typhoon paths; the second is the correspondence of distributions between sea surface temperature (SST), 850 hPa zonal wind (u), meridional wind (v), and 500 hPa potential height field; and the third is the numerical sensitivity experiment, which reflects the evident impact of variations in the physical field around the typhoon to the WPSH index. Secondly, the model is repeatedly trained through the backward propagation algorithm to predict the WPSH index using 2011-2018 atmospheric variables as the input of the training set. The model predicts the WPSH index after 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. The validation set using independent data in 2019 is utilized to illustrate the performance. Finally, the model is improved by changing the CNN2D module to the DeCNN module to enhance its ability to predict images. Taking the 2019 Typhoon Lekima as an example, it shows the promising performance of this model to predict the 500 hPa potential height field.
Diversity of protease-producing bacteria in the Bohai Bay sediment and their extracellular enzymatic properties
Zhenpeng Zhang, Chaoya Wu, Shuai Shao, Wei Liu, En-Tao Wang, Yan Li
 doi: 10.1007/s13131-020-1589-x
[Abstract](656) [FullText HTML](196)
Protease-producing bacteria play key roles in the degradation of organic nitrogen materials in marine sediments. However, their diversity, production of proteases and other extracellular enzymes, even in situ ecological functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the diversity of cultivable extracellular protease-producing bacteria in the sediments of the Bohai Bay. A total of 109 bacterial isolates were obtained from the sediments of 7 stations. The abundance of cultivable protease-producing bacteria was about 104 CFU/g of sediment in all the samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences classified all the isolates into 14 genera from phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, with Pseudoalteromonas (63/109, 57.8%), Bacillus (9/109, 8.2%), Sulfitobacter (8/109, 7.3%) and Salegentibacter (6/109, 5.5%) as the dominant taxa. Enzymatic inhibition tests indicated that all the tested isolates produced serine and/or metalloprotease, with only a small proportion producing cysteine and/or aspartic proteases. Several extracellular enzyme activities, including alginase, lipase, amylase and cellulose, and nitrate reduction were also detected for strains with higher protease activities. According the results, the protease-producing bacteria could also be participate in many biogeochemical processes in marine sediments. Our study broadened understanding and knowledge on the potential ecological functions of protease-producing bacteria in marine sediments.
2023-12 Cover
2023, 42(12): -1-0.  
[Abstract](60) [PDF 5670KB](6)
2023-12 Contents
2023, 42(12): .  
[Abstract](82) [FullText HTML](41) [PDF 66KB](6)
Articles$Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Fuzzy cluster analysis of water mass in the western Taiwan Strait in spring 2019
Zhiyuan Hu, Jia Zhu, Longqi Yang, Zhenyu Sun, Xin Guo, Zhaozhang Chen, Linfeng Huang
2023, 42(12): 1-8.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2286-3
[Abstract](126) [FullText HTML](57) [PDF 1465KB](19)
The classification of the springtime water mass has an important influence on the hydrography, regional climate change and fishery in the Taiwan Strait. Based on 58 stations of CTD profiling data collected in the western and southwestern Taiwan Strait during the spring cruise of 2019, we analyze the spatial distributions of temperature (T) and salinity (S) in the investigation area. Then by using the fuzzy cluster method combined with the T-S similarity number, we classify the investigation area into 5 water masses: the Minzhe Coastal Water (MZCW), the Taiwan Strait Mixed Water (TSMW), the South China Sea Surface Water (SCSSW), the South China Sea Subsurface Water (SCSUW) and the Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW). The MZCW appears in the near surface layer along the western coast of Taiwan Strait, showing low-salinity (<32.0) tongues near the Minjiang River Estuary and the Xiamen Bay mouth. The TSMW covers most upper layer of the investigation area. The SCSSW is mainly distributed in the upper layer of the southwestern Taiwan Strait, beneath which is the SCSUW. The KBW is a high temperature (core value of 26.36℃) and high salinity (core value of 34.62) water mass located southeast of the Taiwan Bank and partially in the central Taiwan Strait.
Application and evaluation of layering shear method in LADCP data processing
Zijian Cui, Chujin Liang, Binbin Guo, Feilong Lin, Yong Mu
2023, 42(12): 9-21.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2200-z
[Abstract](95) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 2425KB](10)
The current velocity observation of LADCP (Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) has the advantages of a large vertical range of observation and high operability compared with traditional current measurement methods, and is being widely used in the field of ocean observation. Shear and inverse methods are now commonly used by the international marine community to process LADCP data and calculate ocean current profiles. The two methods have their advantages and shortcomings. The shear method calculates the value of current shear more accurately, while the accuracy in an absolute value of the current is lower. The inverse method calculates the absolute value of the current velocity more accurately, but the current shear is less accurate. Based on the shear method, this paper proposes a layering shear method to calculate the current velocity profile by “layering averaging”, and proposes corresponding current calculation methods according to the different types of problems in several field observation data from the western Pacific, forming an independent LADCP data processing system. The comparison results have shown that the layering shear method can achieve the same effect as the inverse method in the calculation of the absolute value of current velocity, while retaining the advantages of the shear method in the calculation of a value of the current shear.
The effect of Typhoon Kalmaegi on the modal energy and period of internal waves near the Dongsha Islands (South China Sea)
Rongwei Zhai, Guiying Chen, Chenjing Shang, Xiaodong Shang, Youren Zheng
2023, 42(12): 22-31.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2205-7
[Abstract](49) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 3004KB](12)
The influence of Typhoon Kalmaegi on internal waves near the Dongsha Islands in the northeastern South China Sea was investigated using mooring observation data. We observed, for the first time, that the phenomenon of regular variation characteristics of the 14-d spring-neap cycle of diurnal internal tides (ITs) can be regulated by typhoons. The diurnal ITs lost the regular variation characteristics of the 14-d spring-neap cycle during the typhoon period owing to the weakening of diurnal coherent ITs, represented by O1 and K1, and the strengthening of diurnal incoherent ITs. Results of quantitative analysis showed that during the pre-typhoon period, time-averaged modal kinetic energy (sum of Modes 1–5) of near-inertial internal waves (NIWs) and diurnal and semidiurnal ITs were 0.62 kJ/m2, 5.66 kJ/m2, and 1.48 kJ/m2, respectively. However, during the typhoon period, the modal kinetic energy of NIWs increased 5.11 times, mainly due to the increase in high-mode kinetic energy. At the same time, the modal kinetic energy of diurnal and semidiurnal ITs was reduced by 68.9% and 20%, respectively, mainly due to the decrease in low-mode kinetic energy. The significantly reduced diurnal ITs during the typhoon period could be due to: (1) strong nonlinear interaction between diurnal ITs and NIWs, and (2) a higher proportion of high-mode diurnal ITs during the typhoon period, leading to more energy dissipation.
Mixed layer warming by the barrier layer in the southeastern Indian Ocean
Kaiyue Wang, Yisen Zhong, Meng Zhou
2023, 42(12): 32-38.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2151-4
[Abstract](222) [FullText HTML](95) [PDF 2114KB](26)
The southeastern Indian Ocean is characterized by the warm barrier layer (BL) underlying the cool mixed layer water in austral winter. This phenomenon lasts almost half a year and thus provides a unique positive effect on the upper mixed layer heat content through the entrainment processes at the base of the mixed layer, which has not been well evaluated due to the lack of proper method and dataset. Among various traditional threshold methods, here it is shown that the 5 m fixed depth difference can produce a reliable and accurate estimate of the entrainment heat flux (EHF) in this BL region. The comparison between the daily and monthly EHF warming indicates that the account for high-frequency EHF variability almost doubles the warming effect in the BL period, which can compensate for or even surpass the surface heat loss. This increased warming is a result of stronger relative rate of the mixed layer deepening and larger temperature differences between the mixed layer and its immediate below in the daily-resolving data. The interannual EHF shows a moderately increasing trend and similar variabilities to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), likely because the mixed layer deepening under the positive SAM trend is accompanied by enhanced turbulent entrainment and thus increases the BL warming.
Gravity anomalies determined from mean sea surface model data over the Gulf of Mexico
Xuyang Wei, Xin Liu, Zhen Li, Xiaotao Chang, Hongxin Luo, Chengcheng Zhu, Jinyun Guo
2023, 42(12): 39-50.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2178-6
[Abstract](273) [FullText HTML](101) [PDF 3027KB](13)
With the improvements in the density and quality of satellite altimetry data, a high-precision and high-resolution mean sea surface model containing abundant information regarding a marine gravity field can be calculated from long-time series multi-satellite altimeter data. Therefore, in this study, a method was proposed for determining marine gravity anomalies from a mean sea surface model. Taking the Gulf of Mexico (15°–32°N, 80°–100°W) as the study area and using a removal-recovery method, the residual gridded deflections of the vertical (DOVs) are calculated by combining the mean sea surface, mean dynamic topography, and XGM2019e_2159 geoid, and then using the inverse Vening-Meinesz method to determine the residual marine gravity anomalies from the residual gridded DOVs. Finally, residual gravity anomalies are added to the XGM2019e_2159 gravity anomalies to derive marine gravity anomaly models. In this study, the marine gravity anomalies were estimated with mean sea surface models CNES_CLS15MSS, DTU21MSS, and SDUST2020MSS and the mean dynamic topography models CNES_CLS18MDT and DTU22MDT. The accuracy of the marine gravity anomalies derived by the mean sea surface model was assessed based on ship-borne gravity data. The results show that the difference between the gravity anomalies derived by DTU21MSS and CNES_CLS18MDT and those of the ship-borne gravity data is optimal. With an increase in the distance from the coast, the difference between the gravity anomalies derived by mean sea surface models and ship-borne gravity data gradually decreases. The accuracy of the difference between the gravity anomalies derived by mean sea surface models and those from ship-borne gravity data are optimal at a depth of 3–4 km. The accuracy of the gravity anomalies derived by the mean sea surface model is high.
Satellite-observed significant improvement in nearshore transparency of the Bohai Sea during pollution control
Xuyan Li, Jinzhao Xiang, Liudi Zhu, Zhibin Yang, Ting Wei, Bing Mu, Xiaobo Zhang, Tingwei Cui
2023, 42(12): 51-62.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2180-z
[Abstract](348) [FullText HTML](148) [PDF 6773KB](41)
The Bohai Sea (BS) is the unique semi-closed inland sea of China, characterized by degraded water quality due to significant terrestrial pollution input. In order to improve its water quality, a dedicated action named “Uphill Battles for Integrated Bohai Sea Management” (UBIBSM, 2018–2020) was implemented by the Chinese government. To evaluate the action effectiveness toward water quality improvement, variability of the satellite-observed water transparency (Secchi disk depth, ZSD) was explored, with special emphasis on the nearshore waters (within 20 km from the coastline) prone to terrestrial influence. (1) Compared to the status before the action began (2011–2017), majority (87.3%) of the nearshore waters turned clear during the action implementation period (2018–2020), characterized by the elevated ZSD by 11.6% ± 12.1%. (2) Nevertheless, the improvement was not spatially uniform, with higher ZSD improvement in provinces of Hebei, Liaoning, and Shandong (13.2% ± 16.5%, 13.2% ± 11.6%, 10.8% ± 10.2%, respectively) followed by Tianjin (6.2% ± 4.7%). (3) Bayesian trend analysis found the abrupt ZSD improvement in April 2018, which coincided with the initiation of UBIBSM, implying the water quality response to pollution control. More importantly, the independent statistics of land-based pollutant discharge also indicated that the significant reduction of terrestrial pollutant input during the UBIBSM action was the main driver of observed ZSD improvement. (4) Compared with previous pollution control actions in the BS, UBIBSM was found to be the most successful one during the past 20 years, in terms of transparency improvement over nearshore waters. The presented results proved the UBIBSM-achieved remarkable water quality improvement, taking the advantage of long-term consistent and objective data record from satellite ocean color observation.
Articles$Ocean Engineering
Modeling wave attenuation by vegetation with accompanying currents in SWAN
Hong Wang, Zhan Hu
2023, 42(12): 63-76.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2199-1
[Abstract](398) [FullText HTML](176) [PDF 2719KB](45)
Coastal wetlands such as salt marshes and mangroves provide important protection against stormy waves. Accurate assessments of wetlands’ capacity in wave attenuation are required to safely utilize their protection services. Recent studies have shown that tidal currents have a significant impact on wetlands’ wave attenuation capacity, but such impact has been rarely considered in numerical models, which may lead to overestimation of wave attenuation in wetlands. This study modified the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) model to account for the effect of accompanying currents on vegetation-induced wave dissipation. Furthermore, this model was extended to include automatically derived vegetation drag coefficients, spatially varying vegetation height, and Doppler Effect in combined current-wave flows. Model evaluation against an analytical model and flume data shows that the modified model can accurately simulate wave height change in combined current-wave flows. Subsequently, we applied the new model to a mangrove wetland on Hailing Island in China with a special focus on the effect of currents on wave dissipation. It is found that the currents can either increase or decrease wave attenuation depending on the ratio of current velocity to the amplitude of the horizontal wave orbital velocity, which is in good agreement with field observations. Lastly, we used Hailing Island site as an example to simulate wave attenuation by vegetation under hypothetical storm surge conditions. Model results indicate that when currents are 0.08–0.15 m/s and the incident wave height is 0.75–0.90 m, wetlands’ wave attenuation capacity can be reduced by nearly 10% compared with pure wave conditions, which provides implications for critical design conditions for coastal safety. The obtained results and the developed model are valuable for the design and implementation of wetland-based coastal defense. The code of the developed model has been made open source, in the hope to assist further research and coastal management.
Articles$Marine Information Science
Exploring spatial non-stationarity of near-miss ship collisions from AIS data under the influence of sea fog using geographically weighted regression: A case study in the Bohai Sea, China
Yongtian Shen, Zhe Zeng, Dan Liu, Pei Du
2023, 42(12): 77-89.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2137-7
[Abstract](244) [FullText HTML](94) [PDF 4601KB](13)
Sea fog is a disastrous weather phenomenon, posing a risk to the safety of maritime transportation. Dense sea fogs reduce visibility at sea and have frequently caused ship collisions. This study used a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model to explore the spatial non-stationarity of near-miss collision risk, as detected by a vessel conflict ranking operator (VCRO) model from automatic identification system (AIS) data under the influence of sea fog in the Bohai Sea. Sea fog was identified by a machine learning method that was derived from Himawari-8 satellite data. The spatial distributions of near-miss collision risk, sea fog, and the parameters of GWR were mapped. The results showed that sea fog and near-miss collision risk have specific spatial distribution patterns in the Bohai Sea, in which near-miss collision risk in the fog season is significantly higher than that outside the fog season, especially in the northeast (the sea area near Yingkou Port and Bayuquan Port) and the southeast (the sea area near Yantai Port). GWR outputs further indicated a significant correlation between near-miss collision risk and sea fog in fog season, with higher R-squared (0.890 in fog season, 2018), than outside the fog season (0.723 in non-fog season, 2018). GWR results revealed spatial non-stationarity in the relationships between-near miss collision risk and sea fog and that the significance of these relationships varied locally. Dividing the specific navigation area made it possible to verify that sea fog has a positive impact on near-miss collision risk.
The morphological changes of basal channels based on multi-source remote sensing data at the Pine Island Ice Shelf
Xiangyu Song, Zemin Wang, Jianbin Song, Baojun Zhang, Mingliang Liu
2023, 42(12): 90-104.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2241-3
[Abstract](351) [FullText HTML](163) [PDF 2837KB](26)
The basal channel is a detailed morphological feature of the ice shelf caused by uneven basal melting. This kind of specifically morphology is widely distributed in polar ice shelves. It is an important research object of sea-ice interaction and plays a vital role in studying the relationship between the ice sheet/ice shelf and global warming. In this paper, high-resolution remote sensing image and ice penetration data were combined to extract the basal channel of the Pine Island Ice Shelf. The depth variation of Pine Island Ice Shelf in the recent 20 years was analyzed and discussed by using ICESat-1, ICESat-2, and IceBridge data. Combined with relevant marine meteorological elements (sea surface temperature, surface melting days, circumpolar deep water and wind) to analyze the basal channel changes, the redistribution of ocean heat is considered to be the most important factor affecting the evolution and development of the basal channel.
Retrieval of snow depth on Antarctic sea ice from the FY-3D MWRI data
Zhongnan Yan, Xiaoping Pang, Qing Ji, Yizhuo Chen, Chongxin Luo, Pei Fan, Zeyu Liang
2023, 42(12): 105-117.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2179-5
[Abstract](330) [FullText HTML](144) [PDF 5285KB](26)
The snow depth on sea ice is an extremely critical part of the cryosphere. Monitoring and understanding changes of snow depth on Antarctic sea ice is beneficial for research on sea ice and global climate change. The Microwave Radiation Imager (MWRI) sensor aboard the Chinese FengYun-3D (FY-3D) satellite has great potential for obtaining information of the spatial and temporal distribution of snow depth on the sea ice. By comparing in-situ snow depth measurements during the 35th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE-35), we took advantage of the combination of multiple gradient ratio (GR (36V, 10V) and GR (36V, 18V)) derived from the measured brightness temperature of FY-3D MWRI to estimate the snow depth. This method could simultaneously introduce the advantages of high and low GR in the snow depth retrieval model and perform well in both deep and shallow snow layers. Based on this, we constructed a novel model to retrieve the FY-3D MWRI snow depth on Antarctic sea ice. The new model validated by the ship-based observational snow depth data from CHINARE-35 and the snow depth measured by snow buoys from the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) suggest that the model proposed in this study performs better than traditional models, with root mean square deviations (RMSDs) of 8.59 cm and 7.71 cm, respectively. A comparison with the snow depth measured from Operation IceBridge (OIB) project indicates that FY-3D MWRI snow depth was more accurate than the released snow depth product from the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the National Tibetan Plateau Data Center (NTPDC). The spatial distribution of the snow depth from FY-3D MWRI agrees basically with that from ICESat-2; this demonstrates its reliability for estimating Antarctic snow depth, and thus has great potential for understanding snow depth variations on Antarctic sea ice in the context of global climate change.
A multi-module with a two-way feedback method for Ulva drift-diffusion
Hui Sheng, Jianmeng Li, Qimao Wang, Bin Zou, Lijian Shi, Mingming Xu, Shanwei Liu, Jianhua Wan, Zhe Zeng, Yanlong Chen
2023, 42(12): 118-134.   doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2165-y
[Abstract](131) [FullText HTML](59) [PDF 5923KB](1)
The outbreak of Ulva in the Yellow Sea has seriously affected marine ecology and economic activities. Therefore, effective prediction of the distribution of Ulva is of great significance for disaster prevention and reduction. However, the prediction method of Ulva is mainly based on numerical simulation. There are two problems with these methods. First is that the initial distribution of Ulva is simulated using independent pixel-level particles. Besides, the influence of Ulva growth and diffusion on the drift is not considered. Therefore, this paper proposes a multi-module with a two-way feedback method (MTF) to solve the above problems. The main contributions of our approach are summarized as follows. First, the initialization module, the generation and elimination module, and the drive module are composed in our way. Second, we proposed an initialization method using rectangle objects to simulate the Ulva distribution extracted from remote sensing images. Thirdly, the drift and diffusion mechanism of the Ulva is considered to realize the two-way feedback between the generation and elimination module and the drive module. The results of our experiments show that the MTF performs better than the traditional method in predicting the drift and diffusion of Ulva. The code is already publicly available at

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