2022 Vol. 41, No. 1

2022-1 Cover
2022, 41(1): .
2022-1 Contents
2022, 41(1): 1-2.
Articles$Marine Chemistry
Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of nutrients in Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone in the Pacific in 2017
Baohong Chen, Kaiwen Zhou, Kang Wang, Jigang Wang, Sumin Wang, Xiuwu Sun, Jinmin Chen, Cai Lin, Hui Lin
2022, 41(1): 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1931-y
This research investigated eight stations in Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the eastern tropical Pacific in 2017 to study the spatial distribution characteristics of nutrients and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, and compared nutrient concentrations and molar ratios with those of other investigations 20 years ago in the same area. The study found that dissolved inorganic nutrient (N, P and Si) concentrations were lowest in the upper layer, and increased from surface to some depths, then they decreased a little to the bottom. N was the limited nutrient factor for the growth of phytoplankton community. Although nutrient concentrations and molar ratios have no obvious changes in 2017 comparing those in 1998−2003, supplemented from the equatorial Pacific, nutrient concentrations in the study area were higher than those in seamounts in the North Pacific and Station ALOHA. Furthermore, this study used Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) to infer the underlying bottom-up factors controlling phytoplankton abundance (Chl a concentration), showing that depth, salinity and \begin{document}${\rm{PO}}_4^{3 - }{\text -}{\rm{ P}} $\end{document} concentration were major factors controlling the growth of phytoplankton community. Furthermore, this study can provide basic data and theoretical support for the development of polymetallic nodule area and its long-term impact assessment on the environment.
Submarine groundwater discharge and benthic biogeochemical zonation in the Huanghe River Estuary
Guangquan Chen, Bochao Xu, Shibin Zhao, Disong Yang, William C. Burnett, Shaobo Diao, Maosheng Gao, Xingyong Xu, Lisha Wang
2022, 41(1): 11-20. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1882-3
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has received increasing attention by studies on coastal areas; however, its effects on biogeochemical zonation have not been investigated to date. The Huanghe River Estuary (HRE) is a world class river estuary with high turbidity, and heavy human regulation. This study investigated how SGD is related to the benthic biogeochemistry of the HRE. Based on the distribution of several parameters (e.g., salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, pH, radium isotopes, and nutrients), the HRE was subdivided into six different zones, and the SGD fluxes within each zone were quantified and compared. The highest SGD flux was found in the northwest nearshore zone, where it was more than one order of magnitude higher than in the offshore zone. High SGD resulted in low DO and pH, but high nutrient levels in the benthic boundary layer. The southeast nearshore zone was also characterized by high SGD flux, but benthic waters were more oxic because of the dominating inputs by the Huanghe River. These data suggest that such a zonation would help to understand benthic biogeochemical processes. High SGD may not only contribute to the estuarine nutrient budget, but may also contribute to the formation of hypoxia and acidification.
Distribution of gamma-ray radionuclides in surface sediments of the Kongsfjorden, Arctic: Implications for sediment provenance
Sheng Zeng, Binbin Deng, Jinlong Wang, Juan Du, Jinzhou Du
2022, 41(1): 21-29. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1916-x
The Kongsfjorden is highly sensitive region to climate variability, however, the study of gamma-ray radionuclides in related areas is relatively scarce. In this study, the grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), 13Corg isotopes, and specific activities of seven gamma nuclides were analysed in surface sediments of the Kongsfjorden in the Arctic during the summer of 2017. The specific activities of 210Pbex, 137Cs, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, and 40K were 12–256 Bq/kg, 0–3.8 Bq/kg, 25–42 Bq/kg, 24–38 Bq/kg, 22–40 Bq/kg, 22–40 Bq/kg, and 354–738 Bq/kg, respectively, with average values of (121±94) Bq/kg, (2.0±1.2) Bq/kg, (34±6) Bq/kg, (32±4) Bq/kg, (32±6) Bq/kg, (33±6) Bq/kg, and (611±119) Bq/kg. This study observed a significant positive correlation (r=0.845, p<0.05) between TOC and 210Pbex, highlighting the strong influence of organic matter on the distribution of 210Pbex. The boundary scavenging of 210Pb from the open sea contributed 27.5%–46.2% to the total 210Pbex in the sediments of the outer Kongsfjorden. The grain size was an important factor affecting the activity distribution of several radionuclides (238U, 228Ra, 228Th, 226Ra, and 40K). The specific activity of 137Cs indicated the transport of terrestrial materials from the exposed area of the Kongsfjorden. The sediments in the Kongsfjorden were derived from various material contributions of glacial meltwater debris, glacial rivers, bare soil, atmospheric deposition, and marine sources. This study explains the source of the Kongsfjorden sediment and the distribution characteristics of radionuclides, and illustrateas the main factors affecting the distribution of radionuclides, which provides a reference for the behavior of polar radionuclides in future research.
Improved method for measuring the δ15N compound-specific amino acids: Application on mesopelagic fishes in the South China Sea
Fuqiang Wang, Ying Wu, Lin Zhang, Jie Jin, Zuozhi Chen, Jun Zhang, Wing-man Lee
2022, 41(1): 30-38. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1812-4
Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSIA-AA) has been widely used in ecological and biogeochemical studies. It has been proven to be powerful in tracing the diet sources and trophic interactions. However, assessing the N sources of mesopelagic fishes has been inconclusive because the mesopelagic fishes’ unique domain (water depth ranged from 0 to 1000 m) and unresolved nitrogen isotopes of various forms. This study proposes a new method for coupling instruments (ion chromatography and Precon-IRMS) and chemical method of oxidation-reduction of amino acids, and also combined δ15N of AAs with δ13C of fatty acids (FAs) to analyze the trophic interactions of mesopelagic fishes in the South China Sea (SCS). AAs were isolated by ion chromatography with high peak resolution and collected by an automated fraction collector. The chemical method then converted the AAs into N2O with a robust oxidation yields and suitable molar ratio of NH2OH to \begin{document}${\rm {NO}}_2^- $\end{document}. Finally, the δ15N of AAs at 20 nmol were measured with a reasonable precision (<0.6‰). With this method, this study report the first batch high precision δ15N of AAs and δ13C of FAs of mesopelagic fishes collected from SCS. Diaphus luetkeni, Chauliodus minimus and Bathygadus antrodes showed similar δ13C values of 20:4n-6 (~ −28‰), while Argyropelecus affinis and Stomias had similar values (~ −32‰). These results reflect that mesopelagic fishes had complex diet sources. An increase of 4‰ in δ15N of glutamic acid (Glu) was found between piscivorous and planktivorous fishes, which might suggest a trophic discrimination factor of mesopelagic fishes in the SCS. This study used δ13C of 20:4n-6 to reveal the diet sources of mesopelagic fishes and δ15N of Glu to clarify trophic level between piscivorous and planktivorous fishes. Thus, this combinative method could therefore ultimately be applied in a variety of deep-sea ecosystem.
Articles$Marine Geology
Oceanic crustal structure and tectonic origin of the southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Philippine Sea
Xiongwei Niu, Pingchuan Tan, Weiwei Ding, Wei Wang, Yao Wei, Xiaodong Wei, Aiguo Ruan, Jie Zhang, Chunyang Wang, Yong Tang, Jiabiao Li
2022, 41(1): 39-49. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1978-9
A new high-resolution velocity model of the southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) was derived from an active-source wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile. The result shows that the KPR crust can be divided into the upper crust with the P-wave velocity less than 6.1 m/s, and lower crust with P-wave velocity between 6.1 km/s and 7.2 km/s. The crustal thickness of the KPR reaches 12.0 km in the center, which gradually decreases to 5.0–6.0 km at sides. The velocity structure of the KPR is similar to the structures of the adjacent West Philippine Basin and Parece Vela Basin (PVB), indicating a typical oceanic crust. Isostatic analysis shows that some regional compensation occurs during the loading of the KPR, which implies that the KPR was built mainly by magmatism during the splitting of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc and the following back-arc seafloor spreading of the PVB during 30–28 Ma BP. The absence of the thick middle crust (6.0–6.5 km/s) and high velocity lower-crustal layers (7.2–7.6 km/s) suggest that arc magmatism plays a less important role in the KPR formation.
Crustal structure and variation along the southern part of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge
Xiaodong Wei, Weiwei Ding, Aiguo Ruan, Jie Zhang, Xiongwei Niu, Jiabiao Li, Yong Tang
2022, 41(1): 50-57. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1979-8
As an interoceanic arc, the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) is an exceptional place to study the subduction process and related magmatism through its interior velocity structure. However, the crustal structure and its nature of the KPR, especially the southern part with limited seismic data, are still in mystery. In order to unveil the crustal structure of the southern part of the KPR, this study uses deep reflection/refraction seismic data recorded by 24 ocean bottom seismometers to reconstruct a detailed P-wave velocity model along the ridge. Results show strong along-ridge variations either on the crustal velocity or the thickness of the KPR. P-wave velocity model is featured with (1) a crustal thickness between 6–12 km, with velocity increases from 4.0 km/s to 7.0 km/s from top to bottom; (2) high gradient (~1 s−1) in the upper crust but low one (<0.2 s−1) in the lower crust; (3) a slow mantle velocity between 7.2 km/s and 7.6 km/s in the uppermost mantle; and (4) inhomogenous velocity anomalies in the lower crust beneath seamounts. By comparing with the mature arc in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc in the east, this study suggests the southern part of KPR is a thicken oceanic crust rather than a typical arc crust. The origin of low velocities in the lower crust and upper mantle may be related with crustal differentiation, which implies advanced crustal evolution from normal oceanic crust to partly thicken oceanic crust. High velocities in the lower crust are related to the difference in magmatism.
Chemical composition of sediments from the subducting Cocos Ridge segment at the Southern Central American subduction zone
Renjie Zhao, Quanshu Yan, Haitao Zhang, Yili Guan, Xuefa Shi
2022, 41(1): 58-75. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1920-1
Subducted sediments play an important role in the magmatism at subduction zones and the formation of mantle heterogeneity, making them an important tracer for shallow crustal processes and deep mantle processes. Therefore, ascertaining the chemical compositions of different subduction end-members is a prerequisite for using subducted sediments to trace key geological processes. We reports here the comprehensive major and trace element analyses of 52 samples from two holes (U1414A and U1381C) drilled on the subducting Cocos Ridge segment at the Southern Central American (SCA) subduction zone during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344. The results show that the SCA subducting sediments contain 51% (wt%) CaCO3, 27% (wt%) terrigenous material, 16% (wt%) opal, and 6% (wt%) mineral-bound H2O+. Compared to the global trenches subducting sediment, the SCA subducting sediments are enriched in biogenic elements (Ba, Sr, and Ca), and depleted in high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti) and alkali elements (K, Rb, and Cs). Meanwhile, the sediments in this area were affected by the carbonate crash event, which could have been caused by a ~800 m rise in the carbonate compensation depth at 11 Ma in the Guatemala Basin. The reason for the sedimentary hiatus at Hole U1381C may be the closure of the Panama Isthmus and the collision between the Cocos Ridge and the Middle America Trench. In addition, the sediments from the subducting Cocos Ridge segment have influenced the petrogenesis of volcanic lavas erupted in the SCA.
Articles$Marine Biology
Influence of environmental data of different sources on marine species habitat modeling: A case study for Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean
Lin Lei, Jintao Wang, Xinjun Chen
2022, 41(1): 76-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1896-x
The quality of environmental data and its possible impact on the marine species habitat modelling are often overlooked while the sources for these data are increasing. This study selected sea surface temperature (SST) from two commonly used sources, the NOAA OceanWatch and IRI/LDEO Climate Data Library, and then constructed habitat suitability index model to evaluate the influences of SST from the two sources on the outcomes of Ommastrephes bartramii habitat models for the months of July–October in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during 1996–2012. This study examined the differences in the amount of estimated unfavourable/favourable habitat area when the SST used for model building and inference were the same or different. Dynamics in suitable habitat area calculated from SST was insensitive to the two different SST products. In the fishing season of O.bartramii, the changes of magnitude and trend of monthly suitable habitat area in August and September were similar over time, whereas there were large differences for July and October. Importantly, there is a substantial lack of consistency in the O.bartramii habitat distribution based on SST of two sources. This study considered the sources of environmental data for habitat modelling and then inferred species habitat distribution whether by the same or different data source.
Changes of melatonin and its receptors in synchronizing turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) seasonal reproduction and maturation rhythm
Chunyan Zhao, Shihong Xu, Yifan Liu, Chengcheng Feng, Yongshuang Xiao, Yanfeng Wang, Qinghua Liu, Jun Li
2022, 41(1): 84-98. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1923-y
In most fish, reproduction is seasonal or periodic under the suitable conditions. In turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) farms, one of the most economically important marine flatfish species, changes in daylength could cause changes in the spawning time. In this study, to characterize the regulation of reproductive physiology following light signals, three melatonin receptors (Mtnr) investigated in turbot were named smMtnr1, smMtnr2, and smMtnr1c. Distinct expression profiles demonstrated that Mtnr mRNAs were concentrated in the brain (as detected in the hypothalamus (Hy) and mesencephalon (Me)), gonad and eye. The most abundant Mtnr1 and Mtnr2 mRNA expression levels were detected in the central nervous system at the beginning of the breeding season, suggesting that Mtnr1 and Mtnr2 may play vital roles in the regulation of turbot gonadal development. In addition, the melatonin profiles gradually increased and reached to the highest level at the spawning stage, indicating that melatonin is a potent hormone in the regulation of fish oocyte growth and maturation. The results of this study suggested that melatonin is the primary factor that transduces the light signal and regulates the physiological functions of turbot seasonal reproduction. Moreover, the results of this study may establish a foundation for further research seeking to identify fish melatonin receptors involved in the gonadal development and gamete maturation.
Environmental drivers of phytoplankton crops and taxonomic composition in northeastern Antarctic Peninsula adjacent sea area
Yubin Feng, Dong Li, Jun Zhao, Zhengbing Han, Jianming Pan, Gaojing Fan, Haisheng Zhang, Ji Hu, Haifeng Zhang, Jiaqi Wu, Qiuhong Zhu
2022, 41(1): 99-117. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1865-4
The ecosystem of the sea region adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula is undergoing remarkable physical and biological changes, in the context of global warming. However, understanding of the dynamics of phytoplankton taxonomic composition in this marginal ice zone remains unclear. In this study, seawater samples collected from 36 stations in the northeastern Antarctic Peninsula were analyzed for nutrients and phytoplankton pigments. Combining with CHEMTAX analysis, remote sensing data, and physicochemical measurements, we investigated the relationships between phytoplankton crops, taxonomic composition, and marine environmental drivers. Integrated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations (200 m) varied from 8.9 mg/m2 to 64.2 mg/m2, with an average of (23.2±12.0) mg/m2 and higher phytoplankton biomass concentrated in the coastal region of South Orkney Island and South Shetland Island. Diatoms were the dominant functional group (63%±21%). Higher proportions of diatoms were associated with higher Chl a (r=0.40, p<0.01), stable water columns (r=0.20, p<0.01), higher Si/P ratios (r=0.34, p<0.01), higher photosynthetically active radiation intensity (r=0.64, p<0.01), and higher sea ice melt water contributions (MWC, r=0.20, p<0.01). Conversely, Phaeocystis antarctica contributed a smaller overall proportion (31%±18%) and was more concentrated in the offshore water masses (e.g., Philip Ridge and South Scotia Ridge) with lower light levels (r=−0.58, p<0.01), deeper mixed layer depths (r=0.17, p<0.05), higher nutrient concentrations (e.g., N, P, and Si, r>0.35, p<0.01), and lower MWC (r=−0.20, p<0.01). In comparison, the total contribution from green flagellates (4%±5%), cryptophyta (1%±3%), dinoflagellates (1%±4%), and cyanobacteria (1% ± 5%) was only 6%. In offshore regions with well-mixed water, less varied taxonomic composition and lower crops with a higher proportion of nanophytoplankton were observed. In contrast, significantly decreasing crops below the mixed layer depth was observed in water columns with strong stratification, where the dominant phytoplankter changed from diatoms to P. antarctica. These findings have important implications for better understanding the future dynamics of marine ecosystems in the sea area adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula.
Benthic microbial biogeography along the continental shelf shaped by substrates from the Changjiang River plume
Yongjun Wei, Shan Jiang, Lingmin Tian, Liping Wei, Jie Jin, Juan Severino Pino Ibánhez, Yan Chang, Xiaodao Wei, Ying Wu
2022, 41(1): 118-131. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1861-8
Coastal zones are active reactors of continental material including that transported by rivers via a series of microbiota-mediated reactions. Nevertheless, current knowledge of the ecology and functioning of the microbiota in coastal areas affected by large riverine inputs remains insufficient on a global scale. Here, an investigation on sediment microbial composition, including taxonomy and metabolic network, as well as their relationship with major benthic reaction substrates, namely carbon, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus, was conducted in the continental shelf affected by the spread of the Changjiang River plume. Surface sediment samples (48 samples) were collected during March 2018, obtaining a mean Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) number of 3 341. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were abundant phyla in the studied sediments. Bray-Curtis distance analysis classified the 48 samples into 4 clusters (MG1 to MG4) at the phylum-level. MG1 and MG2 are found near the river mouth, receiving substantial land-derived particles from the Changjiang River runoff. Particle-attached microbes may be settled in these regions and influenced the observed sediment microbial diversity and biomass, e.g., increased Crenarchaeota relative abundance. The relative enrichment of these two groups in heterotrophic microbes further suggests a reliance of benthic microbiota on substrates with terrestrial origin, particularly specialized on processing sulphur-rich substrates. Regions MG3 and MG4 are located in the outer margin of the area affected by the Changjiang River plume, mainly fed by settling pelagic particles from phytoplankton. Compared to MG1 and MG2, a significant increase in the abundance of Thaumarcheota (phylum-level) and Nitrosopumilus (genus-level) was found in MG3, suggesting nitrogen-related transformations as the key reactions to sustain microbial metabolism in this region. Coupled with the identified variations in the taxonomic composition, significant differences in the keystone taxa between MG1/MG2 and MG3/MG4 were identified via OTU co-occurrence analyses. A higher abundance of Actinobacteria, Thaumarchaeota and Acidobacteria in MG3 and MG4 reinforced the identified spatial variability in benthic metabolism and highlighted the significance of substrate inputs on the sediment microbial structure and biogeography.
Analysis of the inter-annual variability and southward expansion of red tides in the Zhejiang coastal waters from 1981 to 2018
Lili Xu, Yinyu Liang, Wenjun Xiao, Bingrui Chen
2022, 41(1): 132-140. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1741-2
A time series dataset spanning 39 years (1981−2018) on red tide events in Zhejiang coastal waters was used to study the characteristics of inter-annual spatial and temporal variations. A distinct inter-annual pattern characterized by low frequency, explosive growth and fluctuating decline stages was found over the studied time scale. Most red tide events occurred in parallel to the bathymetric contour, and 95.4% were located to the west of the 50 m isobath. Additionally, the high-incidence area of red tides is expanding southward. In this paper, local sea surface temperature (SST), mariculture area and secondary industry growth rate are introduced and identified as the main factors influencing the nutrient and hydrometeorological conditions. A multivariate nonlinear regression equation based on these factors was constructed, and the goodness of fit coefficient was 0.907. The causes of the annual variation and high-frequency area in the southward expansion were quantitatively analyzed based on the proposed regression model. Finally, the results indicated that 68.7% of the annual occurrence variation of red tide was due to the SST and mariculture area, which are the main impact factors; however, secondary industry growth could compensate for the nutrient deficiency caused by the sharp mariculture area reduction and decreased SST. The background nutrient level, which is elevated by coastal economic development, especially secondary industry, is the main determinant of the southward expansion. Although the trend of the southward expansion of high-frequency areas has not changed, the red tide frequency in coastal cities has decreased by half and remained at a stable level after 2010 due to substantial economic restructuring and environmental protection.