2019 Vol. 38, No. 12

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Marine Chemistry
Distributions of 224, 223Ra and 137Cs in the Luzon Strait and its adjacent waters and their response to Typhoon Rainbow
Gu Hequan, Zhao Feng, Yu Wei, Li Ruihuan, Zhao Li, Li Dongmei
2019, 38(12): 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1508-1
This paper reports the distribution of natural radionuclides of 224, 223Ra in the surface water and stratified waters of the Luzon Strait and its adjacent waters during the cruises of September 2015 and May 2016. To understand the impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in the waters was also analyzed. The results showed that the activities of 224, 223Ra and 137Cs were all within the natural radioactive background levels of the marine environment in the South China Sea. 224Ra had a higher activity level in the water of the north South China Sea to the west of the Luzon Strait, and a lower activity level in the oceanic Philippine Sea to the east. The 137Cs activity had no obvious spatial trends. Based on the vertical trends of 224Ra, 137Cs, and water temperature and salinity at three stations (LS3, LS5 and LS8), the distinct characteristics of the activity levels and gradients of 224Ra and 137Cs among the tropical surface water, subsurface water and mid-deep water were revealed. Typhoon Rainbow event reversed the overall circulation of the Luzon Strait and its adjacent area. A huge amount of western Pacific water characterized by low 224Ra activities flooded into the South China Sea, reducing the activity level of 224Ra in the waters. However, there were no significant differences of 137Cs activity between the West Pacific and the north South China Sea, and ocean current changes had no effect on the 137Cs activity levels of the water bodies.
Residues and sources of HCHs and DDTs in the sediments of land-based sewage outlet to the Zhanjiang Bay, China
Zhao Lirong, Shi Yuzhen, Zhao Hui, Zhang Jibiao, Sun Xingli
2019, 38(12): 8-13. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1432-4
Due to the large usage of DDT-containing antifouling paints and lindane in China, heavy residuals of DDTs and HCHs have been found in many fishing harbors, but there is lack of studies on this issue for the Zhanjiang Bay which is an important fishing harbor and mariculture zone in South China. To evaluate the pollution status and sources of HCHs and DDTs in the Zhanjiang Bay, the concentrations, spatial distributions and sources in the sediments of 11 land-based sewage outlets to the Zhanjiang Bay were investigated. Since the 1980s, HCHs residuals had obviously decreased in studied areas, but DDTs had little change, even abnormally high levels were found in some sites. The content percentages and diagnostic ratios of HCHs isomers and DDTs showed that the source of HCHs was derived from soils around the bay and recent input of lindane, and DDTs were from historical residues of technical DDTs and fresh input of DDT-containing antifouling paints on fishing ships. Based on sediment quality guidelines, DDTs would be of more concern for the ecotoxicological risk on marine environment and adverse effects on benthonic organisms. This study indicated that lindane and DDT-containing products may be still used in some places of Zhanjiang City. It should be urgent to control their usage and clean the DDTs-contaminated sites by the local government.
Early diagenesis of redox-sensitive trace metals in the northern Okinawa Trough
Wang Xiaojing, Li Li, Liu Jihua, Wu Yonghua, Gao Jingjing, Cao Peng, Zhang Ying, Shi Xuefa
2019, 38(12): 14-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1512-5
The early diagenesis processes of several redox-sensitive trace metals (RSMs) (Mo, U and V) were studied with several short sediment cores (~25 cm) collected in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). Pore water vertical profiles indicated that the sedimentary environments in all cores were between oxic and suboxic, not yet reaching anoxic sulfidic conditions. The recycling process of Mo in sediments was clearly associated with Mn and yielded little authigenic accumulation, while U showed a downcore increase in sediment and its authigenic mass accumulation rate (MAR) was estimated to be ~23% of the Changjiang (Yangtze) and Huanghe (Yellow) riverine flux. Benthic diffusive fluxes and MAR were calculated and the comparison of them showed that U and V fluxes matched relatively well both in direction and in magnitude, implying that diffusion processes at the sediment-water interface is the dominant process controlling the remobilization or burial of V and U in northern OT. This work provided a systematic study (both in pore water and solid phase) on the RSMs geochemical behaviors during early diagenesis process, yielding a quantitative assessment of the remobilization or burial fluxes of the RSMs in northern OT. Such studies are in general lacking in the coastal margin of Northwest Pacific Ocean.
N2 fixation rate and diazotroph community structure in the western tropical North Pacific Ocean
Zhang Run, Zhang Dongsheng, Chen Min, Jiang Zhibing, Wang Chunsheng, Zheng Minfang, Qiu Yusheng, Huang Jie
2019, 38(12): 26-34. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1513-4
In the present study, we report N2 fixation rate (15N isotope tracer assay) and the diazotroph community structure (using the molecular method) in the western tropical North Pacific Ocean (WTNP) (13°–20°N, 120°–160°E). Our independent evidence on the basis of both in situ N2 fixation activity and diazotroph community structure showed the dominance of unicellular N2 fixation over majority of the WTNP surface waters during the sampling periods. Moreover, a shift in the diazotrophic composition from unicellular cyanobacteria group B-dominated to Trichodesmium spp.-dominated toward the western boundary current (Kuroshio) was also observed in 2013. We hypothesize that nutrient availability may have played a major role in regulating the biogeography of N2 fixation. In surface waters, volumetric N2 fixation rate (calculated by nitrogen) ranged between 0.6 and 2.6 nmol/(L·d) and averaged (1.2±0.5) nmol/(L·d), with < 10 μm size fraction contributed predominantly (88%±6%) to the total rate between 135°E and 160°E. Depth-integrated N2 fixation rate over the upper 200 m ranged between 150 μmol/(m2·d) and 480 μmol/(m2·d) (average (225±105) μmol/(m2·d). N2 fixation can account for 6.2%±3.7% of the depth-integrated primary production, suggesting that N2 fixation is a significant N source sustaining new and export production in the WTNP. The role of N2 fixation in biogeochemical cycling in this climate change-vulnerable region calls for further investigations.
Marine Geology
Implications of the melting depth and temperature of the Atlantic mid-ocean ridge basalts
Guan Yili, Shi Xuefa, Yan Quanshu, Wei Xun, Zhang Yan, Xia Xiaoping, Zhou Haoda
2019, 38(12): 35-42. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1363-0
Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) are characterized by large variations in trace element compositions and isotopic ratios, which are difficult to be interpreted solely by using magmatic process such as partial melting of a peridotitic mantle and subsequently fractional crystallization. Geochemical diversity of MORBs have been attributed to large-scale heterogeneity within the underlying mantle, and the heterogeneity might have been caused by addition of recycled crustal component, subcontinental lithosphere, metasomatized lithosphere and outer core contribution. In this study, we investigated the MORBs along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) by estimating the temperature and pressure of partial melting, and comprehensively comparing trace element and isotope ratios. The data for MORBs from areas close to mantle plumes show large variations. Mantle plumes can affect mid-oceanic ridges 1 400 km away, but plume effects did not cover all of the ridge segments, and those segments without plume effects did not have any abnormalities in temperature, trace element or isotope ratios. We ascribed the above phenomena to result from the shapes of the plume flow, which we categorized as “pipe-like channels” and “pancake-like channels”. The “pancake-like channels” plumes affected the ambient mantle nondirectionally, but the range of the mantle affected by the “pipe-like channels” plumes were selective. Element ratios of MORBs reveal that the mantle source of the MORBs along the MAR is highly heterogeneous. We suggest that most of source heterogeneities of the MORBs may be due to the presence of subducted slab and delaminated lower crust in the source. In addition, the plume that carried materials from the core-mantle boundary may affect some of the segments.
Marine Biology
Monitoring hawksbill turtle nesting sites in some protected areas from the Persian Gulf
Hesni Majid Askari, Rezaie-Atagholipour Mohsen, Zangiabadi Somaye, Tollab Mohammad Amin, Moazeni Mostafa, Jafari Hosein, Matin Mohammad Talebi, Zafarani Ghasem Ghorbanzadeh, Shojaei Mahtab, Motlaghnejad Abbas
2019, 38(12): 43-51. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1514-3
Iranian nesting populations of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate) are some of the most important in the Indian Ocean. In this study, four of the most important hawksbill nesting grounds in the Persian Gulf, situated within three Iranian marine protected areas, were surveyed during nesting season, including Nakhiloo, Ommolgorm and Kharko Islands and the mainland beaches of the Naiband Marine-Coastal National Park (NMCNP). We present GIS maps of these key nesting grounds and describe sand texture of key nesting zones, along with conservation recommendations. About 9.2 (28.3%) out of 32.5 km of all shores surveyed in this study were used by nesting hawksbill turtles follows: Nakhiloo: 1.4 km (52% of potential nesting area); Ommolgorm: 1.94 km (40%); Kharko: 3.4 km (28%), and NMCNP: 2.46 km (18.9%). The average nesting density was calculated as 131 nests/km at Nakhiloo, 76 nests/km at Ommolgorm, 7 nests/km at Kharko, and 15 nests per km at NMCNP. Highest nesting density was observed in Nakhiloo and Ommolgorm. It is thought that high hawksbill nesting density in these islands seems likely a result of limiting adequate nesting shores rather than the size of population, and also low density in Kharko and NMCNP more related to past and current pressures and low population density. With the exception of Ommolgorm Island, sands at the nesting grounds were well sorted. Grain size indicated that female hawksbill turtles in the Iranian Persian Gulf nest in sands that are generally mixed, with mean grain size ranging from coarse sands (0.4Φ; ~0.5-1 mm) to fine sands (2Φ; ~0.25 mm). We provide and discuss conservation recommendations and suggestions for future.
The effect of substrate grain size on burrowing ability and distribution characteristics of Perinereis aibuhitensis
Sun Tao, Liu Chun'e, Li Xingzuo, An Dongzhengyang, Yu Hairui, Ma Zheng, Liu Feng
2019, 38(12): 52-58. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1348-z
Perinereis aibuhitensis (Grube, 1878) lives in marine sediments of estuary or shoal areas, where substrate has some crucial environmental factors affecting its burrowing and distribution. In order to provide basic data for the habitat selection and suitability evaluations of the artificial aquaculture of P. aibuhitensis, this paper conducted a quantified analysis of its burrowing ability and explored its behavioral preferences in different substrates, including mud ( < 75 μm), fine sand (125-250 μm), medium sand (250-500 μm), coarse sand (500-2 000 μm), gravel (2 000-4 000 μm) and ceramsite (4 000-8 000 μm). The research results revealed that substrate grain size significantly affected the burrowing time, burrowing rate, burrowing depth and distribution rate (P < 0.01). Moreover, P. aibuhitensis demonstrated preferential selections relating to substrate grain sizes, had higher burrowing ability in ceramsite, mud and fine sand compared with other substrates. The strongest burrowing ability and the highest distribution rate were observed in ceramsite. The study indicated that P. aibuhitensis was sensitive to substrate grain size, which also had an impact on its burrowing process and population distribution. In the natural sea, substrates mainly composed of mud and fine sand are fit for aquaculture and stock enhancement. Based on behavioral preferences and ecological rehabilitation function of P. aibuhitensis, this paper proposes a symbiotic system of marine animals and halophytes, and constructs an ecosystem model of “Marine fish-Halophytes-Perinereis aibuhitensis” with P. aibuhitensis as the link.
Zooneuston and zooplankton abundance and diversity in relation to spatial and nycthemeral variations in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea
Mantha Gopikrishna, Al-Sofyani Abdulmohsin A., Ali M Al-Aidaroos, Crosby Michael P
2019, 38(12): 59-72. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1427-1
Zooplankton and zooneuston observations were made at seven stations (four from the Gulf of Aqaba and three from the northern Red Sea), during September and October 2016. The main objective of this study was to assess the variability of nycthemeral fauna in relation to the sampling methods using two different types of nets namely, WP2 net and Neuston net along the two study sites, i.e., the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Zooplankton was sampled vertically using a standard WP2 net from a depth of 200 m to the surface, whereas zooneuston was made using a standard Neuston net from a depth of 0-10 cm of the water surface. Total zooplankton density was maximum during night time ((617.83 ±201.84) ind./m3) at the Gulf of Aqaba and total zooneuston was maximum during night at the northern Red Sea ((60.94±29.48) ind./m3), respectively. The most abundant taxa were Copepoda, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Chaetognatha, Tunicata and Ostracoda. The abundance was almost 50% higher at night time at both the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea. Overall, 30 taxa covering 10 phyla and 27 taxa covering 8 phyla were recorded in the Gulf of Aqaba and the northern Red Sea.
Family-level diversity of extracellular proteases of sedimentary bacteria from the South China Sea
Yang Jinyu, Feng Yangyang, Chen Xiulan, Xie Binbin, Zhang Yuzhong, Shi Mei, Zhang Xiying
2019, 38(12): 73-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1391-9
Protease-producing bacteria and their extracellular proteases are key players in degrading organic nitrogen to drive marine nitrogen cycling and yet knowledge on both of them is still very limited. This study screened protease-producing bacteria from the South China Sea sediments and analyzed the diversity of their extracellular proteases at the family level through N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that all screened protease-producing bacteria belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and most of them were affiliated with different genera within the orders Alteromonadales and Vibrionales. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis for fourteen extracellular proteases from fourteen screened bacterial strains revealed that all these proteases belonged to the M4 family of metalloproteases or the S8 family of serine proteases. This study presents new details on taxa of marine sedimentary protease-producing bacteria and types of their extracellular proteases, which will help to comprehensively understand the process and mechanism of the microbial enzymatic degradation of marine sedimentary organic nitrogen.
Isolation, distribution and evaluation of cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of cultivable actinobacteria from the Oman Sea sediments
Gozari Mohsen, Bahador Nima, Jassbi Amir Reza, Mortazavi Mohammad Seddiq, Hamzehei Samad, Eftekhar Ebrahim
2019, 38(12): 84-90. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1515-2
Screening bioactive natural products from bacteria is a determinative step in the drug discovery programs. The present study aim to isolate actinobacteria from the Oman Sea sediments for determining the effects of different culture media and treatments on the yield of the isolation process, and measure the DPPH radical scavenging and Artemia cytotoxic activity of culture extracts of the actinobacterial isolates. A total of 290 actinobacterial isolates were collected from 14 sediment samples. Heat treatment (40.68%) and M4 medium (29.31%) exhibited the maximum isolation rates of actinobacteria. Streptomyces isolates were dominantly distributed in all of the investigated stations according to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution pattern of Streptomyces followed a depth-dependent frequency trend, whereas the members of rare genera including Micromonospora, Nocardia Actinoplanes, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora and Crossiella were distributed in deeper stations. Approximately, 25% of the examined isolates could scavenge 90% of 10-4 mol/L DPPH solutions at 1 250 μg/mL final concentration of their ethyl acetate culture extracts. Furthermore, the most potent extracts could scavenge DPPH radicals with IC50 ranges from 356.8 to 566.4 μg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity tests showed that 38.88% of the examined culture extracts exhibited LC50 lower than 1 000 μg/mL against the Artemia cells. Moreover, the most potent culture extracts exhibited LC50 range from 335.4 to 534.4 μg/mL. Phylogenetic analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the OS 005, OS 263 and OS 157 closely related to Streptomyces djakartensis, Streptomyces olivaceus and Nocardiopsis dassonvillei respectively. These results suggested the widespread distribution of the antioxidant and cytotoxic producing actinobacteria in the Oman Sea sediments, which could be considered as promising candidates for the discovery of microbial bioactive compounds.
Model assessment of nutrient removal via planting Sesuvium portulacastrum in floating beds in eutrophic marine waters: the case of aquaculture areas of Dongshan Bay
Liu Xuehai, Pu Xinming, Luo Donglian, Lu Jing, Liu Zili
2019, 38(12): 91-100. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1492-5
Many coastal seas are severely eutrophic and required to reduce nutrient concentrations to meet a certain water quality standard. We proposed a method for nutrient removal by planting Sesuvium portulacastrum at the water surface using the floating beds in the aquaculture area of the Dongshan Bay as an example, which is an important net-cage culture base in China and where dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) reach 0.75 mg/L and 0.097 mg/L, respectively far exceeding China’s Grade IV water quality standards. Numerical simulations were taken using the ecological model, field observations and field plantation experimental results to assess the environmental restoration effects of planting S. portulacastrum at some certain spatial scales. Our field experiments suggested that the herbs can absorb 377 g/m2 nitrogen and 22.9 g/m2 phosphorus in eight months with an inserting density of ~60 shoot/m2. The numerical experiments show that the greater the plantation area is, the more nutrient removal. Plantation in ~12% of the study area could lower nutrients to the required Grade II standards, i.e., 0.2 mg/L < DIN≤0.3 mg/L and 0.015 mg/L < DIP≤0.03 mg/L. Here the phytoremediation method and results provide helpful references for environmental restoration in other eutrophic seas.
Spatial-temporal dynamics of biogenic silica in the southern Yellow Sea
Zhang Dan, Jian Shan, Sun Jun, Leng Xiaoyun, Zhang Guicheng
2019, 38(12): 101-110. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1516-1
Concentrations of biogenic silica (BSi) in the southern Yellow Sea were determined during four cruises (spring: April–May 2014; autumn: November 2014; summer: August–September 2015; winter: January 2016). Samples of BSi were measured using the double extraction method. Seasonal and spatial variations of BSi and the potential correlation between chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and BSi in four seasons were measured in this study. Significant spatial variability was observed in seawater BSi concentrations. The average concentration of BSi was highest in winter and lowest in spring. Furthermore, the relationships between concentrations of BSi and hydrological parameters were also discussed. There was a significant positive correlation between Chl a and BSi. The concentrations of BSi showed significant relationships with temperature and the concentrations of silicates, total inorganic nitrogen and total inorganic phosphorus, indicating that distribution of BSi was affected by temperature and nutrient level.
Copepod community structure during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons in coastal waters off Cochin, southwest coast of India
Job N Jemi, Mohamed Hatha A. A.
2019, 38(12): 111-117. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1491-6
Vypeen, an island of Cochin estuarine system, acts as the spawning site of several marine and estuarine fishes. We assumed that, physical process (upwelling) make changes in hydrography and the production of chlorophyll a in coastal waters off Vypeen. These alterations can influence the zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in that area. For justifying this hypothesis, samples were collected from Vypeen at 10 m and 30 m locations during January (pre-southwest monsoon), August (late-southwest monsoon) and November (post-southwest monsoon) 2014. During August, subsurface water column was cool, nutrient rich and less oxygenated (signatures of upwelling) than in November and January. Maximum concentrations of nitrate and chlorophyll a were recorded during August. In the present study, 15 zooplankton groups were recorded; of which copepods were the most predominant group (73%-90%). Copepod density in the present study ranged between 527.2 ind./m3 and 5 139.2 ind./m3. Totally, 37 copepods species were reported in present study and copepod species richness was higher during January. The abundance of zooplankton and copepods was high in August during late-southwest monsoon. These variations were closely associated with the coastal upwelling in August and weakening of moderate upwelling in November. In SIMPER analysis, it was found that the copepods species distribution was similar within season and dissimilar between the three seasons. Moreover, the higher abundance of upwelling indicator species Temora turbinata was recorded in August, which confirms the signs of seasonal upwelling in Vypeen. The present study emphasized on the influence of hydrographical parameters associated with physical process, in governing the copepod community organization of the Vypeen Island.
Clupeid fish hosts a Peniculus sp. (Pennellidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda)—First report on new host and season dependent prevalence
Kattambally Rijin, TMV Mumthaz, Kappalli Sudha, Anilkumar Gopinathan
2019, 38(12): 118-125. doi: 10.1007/s13131-019-1517-0
Pennellid copepod Peniculus fistula fistula (Nordmann, 1832) (Synonym: Peniculus fistula Nordmann, 1832, Aphia ID: 745880), a worldwide distributed species, has been recovered from at least 19 teleost families. The present paper reports for the first time from the Malabar coast (South India), not only the existence of a new host family, Clupeidae, hosting this parasitic copepod species (P. fistula fistula) but also their season dependent hosting. A total of 123 marine fish species, belonging to 77 genera and 38 families surveyed along the Malabar coast, only the clupeid, Anadontostoma chacunda (Hamilton, 1822) was shown to be infected by this copepod species; all the recovered (copepod) parasites were invariably found attached at the mid portion of the caudal fin lobes and lying parallel to the host body, indicating the strict site-specific parasitisation. There is a discrete seasonality in the prevalence (P < 0.05) as the sign of infection was noticed during the period from September to May with relatively high prevalence during winter months (November–January). During the monsoon months (June–August), the host fish was found completely free from Peniculus infection. Interestingly, all the 229 recovered specimens (P. fistula fistula) were gravid females having paired uniserrate egg sacs with the length more than its own body length.