2018 Vol. 37, No. 6

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Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Validation of significant wave height retrieval from co-polarization Chinese Gaofen-3 SAR imagery using an improved algorithm
SHENG Yexin, SHAO Weizeng, ZHU Shuai, SUN Jian, YUAN Xinzhe, LI Shuiqing, SHI Jian, ZUO Juncheng
2018, 37(6): 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1217-1
Chinese Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is the first civilian satellite to carry C-band (5.3 GHz) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). During the period of August 2016 to December 2017, 1 523 GF-3 SAR images acquired in quad-polarization (vertical-vertical (VV), horizontal-horizontal (HH), vertical-horizontal (VH), and horizontal-vertical (HV)) mode were recorded, mostly around China's seas. In our previous study, the root mean square error (RMSE) of significant wave height (SWH) was found to be around 0.58 m when compared with retrieval results from a few GF-3 SAR images in co-polarization (VV and HH) with moored measurements by using an empirical algorithm CSAR_WAVE. We collected a number of sub-scenes from these 1 523 images in the co-polarization channel, which were collocated with wind and SWH data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis field at a 0.125° grid. Through the collected dataset, an improved empirical wave retrieval algorithm for GF-3 SAR in co-polarization was tuned, herein denoted as CSAR_WAVE2. An additional 92 GF-3 SAR images were implemented in order to validate CSAR_WAVE2 against SWH from altimeter Jason-2, showing an about 0.52 m RMSE of SWH for co-polarization GF-3 SAR. Therefore, we conclude that the proposed empirical algorithm has a good performance for wave retrieval from GF-3 SAR images in co-polarization.
Comparison of two Bayesian-point-estimation methods in multiple-source localization
LI Qianqian, MING Pingshou, YANG Fanlin, ZHANG Kai, WU Ziyin
2018, 37(6): 11-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1215-3
Environmental uncertainty represents the limiting factor in matched-field localization. Within a Bayesian framework, both the environmental parameters, and the source parameters are considered to be unknown variables. However, including environmental parameters in multiple-source localization greatly increases the complexity and computational demands of the inverse problem. In the paper, the closed-form maximum-likelihood expressions for source strengths and noise variance at each frequency allow these parameters to be sampled implicitly, substantially reducing the dimensionality and difficulty of the inversion. This paper compares two Bayesian-point-estimation methods:the maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach and the marginal posterior probability density (PPD) approach to source localization. The MAP approach determines the sources locations by maximizing the PPD over all source and environmental parameters. The marginal PPD approach integrates the PPD over the unknowns to obtain a sequence of marginal probability distribution over source range or depth. Monte Carlo analysis of the two approaches for a test case involving both geoacoustic and water-column uncertainties indicates that:(1) For sensitive parameters such as source range, water depth and water sound speed, the MAP solution is better than the marginal PPD solution. (2) For the less sensitive parameters, such as, bottom sound speed, bottom density, bottom attenuation and water sound speed, when the SNR is low, the marginal PPD solution can better smooth the noise, which leads to better performance than the MAP solution. Since the source range and depth are sensitive parameters, the research shows that the MAP approach provides a slightly more reliable method to locate multiple sources in an unknown environment.
Marine Chemistry
Submarine groundwater discharge around Taiwan
CHEN Chen-Tung Arthur, ZHANG Jing, PENG Tsung-Ren, KANDASAMY Selvaraj, WANG Deli, LIN Yi-Jie
2018, 37(6): 18-22. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1216-2
A preliminary study shows that the submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) exists around Taiwan even though groundwater overdrawing on the island is serious. Fifteen of the 20 sites studied for major anions and cations recorded a clear SGD signal with freshwater outflow. A total of 278 salinity and major ion measurements were made. Sixteen nearly freshwater SGD (salinity ≤ 1.0) samples were obtained, providing strong and direct evidence for the existence of fresh meteoric groundwater entering the ocean from Taiwan. The total SGD flux is estimated to be 1.07×1010 t/a which is about 14% of the annual river output. The freshwater component of the SGD is 3.85×109 t which is about 5.2% of the annual river discharge in Taiwan. The collected SGD has a composition similar to seawater with an addition of Ca, CO3 and HCO3 due to dissolution of calcareous rocks. Some samples with high Cl/(Na+K) may indicate pollution.
Reducing eutrophication risk of a reservoir by water replacement: a case study of the Qingcaosha reservoir in the Changjiang Estuary
CHEN Yizhong, ZHU Jianrong
2018, 37(6): 23-29. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1183-7
Eutrophication of freshwater systems in cities is a major concern worldwide. Physical, biological and chemical methods have been used in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs to reduce their eutrophic state and algal biomass, but these approaches are not effective without a substantial reduction in nutrients input, which could take decades to achieve in the developing countries. This study aims to assess the risk of eutrophication and algal bloom in a coastal reservoir with high nutrient inputs to confirm the feasibility of inhibiting the reservoir's eutrophic state by hydrodynamic operations. A variety of water quality indexes (e.g., water temperature, secchi depth, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, phytoplankton chlorophyll a) at five observed sites were investigated in the Qingcaosha reservoir, which located in the Changjiang Estuary, during the construction, trial and normal operation periods from 2009 to 2012. No water exchange happened during the construction from April 2009 to October 2010, and the water exchange increased during the trial from October 2010 to January 2011, and during normal operation period from January 2011. The comprehensive nutrition state index (TLI) calculated by several representative water quality indexes was adopted to evaluate the variation of the trophic state in the reservoir. The peak values of TLI reached 51 in the summer of 2009, and 55 in the summer of 2011, higher than the eutrophication threshold value 50. The lowest TLI, about 32, appeared in the summer of 2010. The values of TLI in other observation periods could keep under 50. The results showed that the reservoir could easily deteriorate into the eutrophic state because of excess nutrients and algal blooms in the summer of 2009 and 2011, while the eutrophication and algal blooms could be reduced by the lack of nutrients in 2010 or adequate water replacement in 2012. The temporal and spatial variations of water quality indexes were presented based on observation data and analysis. The adequate water replacement in the reservoir driven by tides was tested to be an efficient and economical method for controlling eutrophication and algae blooms in the water environment with high nutrient inputs.
Marine Geology
On the sediment age estimated by 210Pb dating: probably misleading “prolonging” and multiple-factor-caused “loss”
JIA Jianjun, YANG Yang, CAI Tinglu, GAO Jianhua, XIA Xiaoming, LI Yan, GAO Shu
2018, 37(6): 30-39. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1214-4
The radionuclide 210Pb is suitable for century-scale dating and has been used to calculate the sedimentation rate in a variety of environments. However, two common ways to apply 210Pb dating techniques may give misleading results. One is "prolonging of age", i.e., using the calculated sedimentation rate to date back to 200 or 300 years. This practice must be treated with caution because the 210Pb dating techniques do not guarantee direct dating for ages much older than 100 years. Another is "loss of age", i.e., the calculated time span between the topmost layer and the 210Pb background layer in cores is less than 100 years when an apparent sedimentation rate is used in the calculation. Here, we propose that based on the principle of 210Pb dating, the upper limit of age suitable for direct 210Pb dating is between 110 and 155 years. The "prolonging" application is acceptable only if the sedimentary environment in the past several hundred years was stable and the sedimentation rate was generally constant, and verification with independent evidence (such as historical records or biomarker methodology) is needed. Furthermore, after analyzing many published and collected data, we found four possible reasons for the "loss of age". First, the compaction effect of sediment should be corrected in laboratory analysis or else the calculated age will be underestimated. Second, the accuracy and uncertainty of 210Pb activity measurement affect the judgment of the background. To be cautious, researchers are apt to choose a background activity with a younger age. Third, use of a slightly smaller value of supported 210Pb activity in a calculation will lead to considerable underestimation of the time span. Finally, later-stage erosion and migration are common for sedimentation, which lead to loss of sedimentary records and are often reflected as a "loss of age" in cores. We believe that proper use of 210Pb dating data may provide helpful information on our understanding of sediment records and recent environmental changes.
Marine Biology
Estimation of genetic parameters for upper thermal tolerance and growth-related traits in turbot Scophthalmus maximus using the Bayesian method based on Gibbs sampling
MA Aijun, WANG Xin'an, HUANG Zhihui, LIU Zhifeng, CUI Wenxiao, QU Jiangbo
2018, 37(6): 40-46. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1185-5
In order to carry out the genetic improvement of turbot upper thermal tolerance, it is necessary to estimate the genetic parameters of UTT (upper thermal tolerance) and growth-related traits. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for BW (body weight) and UTT in a two-generational turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) pedigree derived from four imported turbot stocks (England, France, Denmark and Norway). A total of 42 families including 20 families from G1 generation and 22 families from G2 generation were used to test upper thermal tolerance (40-50 animals per family) in this study and the body weight of individuals were measured. The heritability of BW and UTT and the correlation between these two traits were estimated based on an individual animal model using Bayesian method based on two types of animal models with and without maternal effects. These results showed that the heritabilities for BW and UTT and phenotypic and genetic correlations between the two traits estimated from model without maternal effects were 0.239±0.141, 0.111±0.080, 0.075±0.026 and -0.019±0.011, respectively. The corresponding values from model with maternal effects were 0.203±0.115, 0.055±0.026, 0.047±0.034 and -0.024±0.028, respectively. The maternal effects of BW and UTT were 0.050±0.017 and 0.013±0.004, respectively. The maternal effects had a certain influence on the genetic evaluation of the two traits. The findings of this paper provided the necessary background to determine the best selection strategy to be adopted in the genetic improvement program.
Genetic parameters and response to selection for body weight in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, Linnaeus)
LYU Ding, WANG Weiji, LUAN Sheng, HU Yulong, GUAN Jiantao, LI Zhixiang, WU Huanhuan, KONG Jie, LIU Shoutang
2018, 37(6): 47-51. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1150-3
Genetic parameters and response to selection were estimated for harvest body weight in turbot. The data consisted of 10 952 individuals of 508 full-sib families from three generations (G0, G1, and G2). The heritability estimates for G0, G1, and G2 were 0.11±0.08, 0.18±0.09, and 0.17±0.07, respectively. Over three generations, the heritability estimate was 0.19±0.04. Maternal and common environmental effects were 0.10±0.04, 0.14±0.04, and 0.13±0.03 within each generation and 0.12±0.01 across generations. The selection differential in growth was 18.24 g in G0 and 21.19 g in G1 corresponding to an average of 19.72 g per generation. The genetic gains were also calculated, they were 22.06 g in G1 and 11.93 g in G2, corresponding to 6.36% and 3.52% body weight. The total genetic gain after two generations was 10.10% body weight, which indicated that the selective breeding program for the body weight trait in turbot was successful.
Unravelling habitat use of Coilia nasus from the Rokkaku River and Chikugo River estuaries of Japan by otolith strontium and calcium
LIU Hongbo, JIANG Tao, YANG Jian
2018, 37(6): 52-60. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1190-8
The migratory history of the engraulid fish Coilia nasus in the Rokkaku and Chikugo River estuaries of the Ariake Sea, Japan was assessed using otolith strontium (Sr) X-ray intensity maps and strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratio life history transects by an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The results showed that seven of the ten specimens from the Rokkaku River Estuary (LJC) and all 15 specimens collected in the Chikugo River Estuary (ZHC) had low Sr:Ca ratios (≤ 3) at the central otolith area, indicating their riverine origin and initial freshwater residence. After the first regime shift adjacent to natal regions, the Sr level mapping displayed a wide variety of color patterns, and the Sr:Ca ratios obtained by the line transect analysis could be divided into one to six significantly different phases indicative of gradual life history transition. The other three specimens from the Rokkaku River Estuary had high Sr:Ca ratios (3-6.7) at the central otolith area but showed alternating changes between low and high values outside the natal region, suggesting that estuarine-origin individuals occurred in the Rokkaku River Estuary. The two-dimensional maps of the Sr level and average of the otolith Sr:Ca ratios along the life-history transects could be used as effective tools for reconstruction of past habitat use of the tapertail anchovy in estuaries of the Ariake Sea, Japan.
Response of winter cohort abundance of Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus to the ENSO events
YU Wei, ZHANG Yang, CHEN Xinjun, YI Qian, QIAN Weiguo
2018, 37(6): 61-71. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1186-4
The Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus is an economically important species with one year lifespan, which is significantly influenced by climatic and environmental variability. According to the fishery data of the winter cohort of T. pacificus from 2003 to 2012, as well as environmental data and the Oceanic Niño index (ONI, which was defined by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the Niño 3.4 region), variations in the SST, chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, suitable spawning area (SSA) and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) on the spawning ground of T. pacificus were examined under the El Niño and La Niña conditions. Their influences on squid abundance (defined by catch per unit effort, CPUE) were further assessed. The results showed that seasonal changes were found in SST, Chl a and SSA on the spawning ground of T. pacificus. Correlation analysis suggested that annual CPUE was significantly positively correlated with Chl a and SSA (p<0.05), but had insignificant relationship with SST (p>0.05). Moreover, the El Niño and La Niña events tended to dominate the changes of SSA and Chl a concentration in the key area between 25°-29°N and 122.5°-130.5°E, driving the variability of squid abundance. However, this influence varied with the intensity of each anomalous climatic event:the weak El Niño event occurred, the spawning ground was occupied by waters with enlarged SSA but with extremely low Chl a concentration, leading to low squid recruitment, the CPUE then decreased; the moderate intensity of El Niño event resulted in shrunk SSA but with high Chl a concentration on the spawning ground, the squid recruitment and CPUE increased; the moderate intensity of La Niña events yielded elevated SSA and high Chl a concentration on the spawning ground, the squid recruitment and CPUE dramatically increased. Our findings suggested that the ENSO events played crucial effects on the incubating and feeding conditions of the winter cohort of T. pacificus during the spawning season and ultimately affected its abundance.
Spatial pattern of macrobenthic communities along a shelf-slope-basin transect across the Bering Sea
LIN Heshan, LIU Kun, WANG Jianjun, HUANG Yaqin, LI Zhong, LIN Junhui, HE Xuebao, ZHANG Shuyi, MOU Jianfeng, WANG Yu, XING Bingpeng
2018, 37(6): 72-81. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1192-6
Due to its unique geological location, the Bering Sea is an ideal place to investigate the water exchange and ecosystem connectivity of the Pacific Ocean-Arctic Ocean and subarctic-Arctic region. Based on a number of summer surveys (July to September, 2010, 2012 and 2014), macrobenthic communities and their spatial-temporal patterns are exhibited for the majority of the Bering Sea (53°59'-64°36'N). The results show that the macrobenthic communities were dominated by northern cold-water species and immigrant eurythermic species, and the communities assumed a dispersed and patchy distribution pattern. Polychaetes (Scoloplos armiger), crustaceans (Ceradocus capensis) and sea urchins (Echinarachnius parma) were the main dominant groups in the shallow shelves; the sea star (Ctenodiscus crispatus) and the brittle star (Ophiura sarsii) were the main dominant groups in the continental slope; whereas small polychaetes (Prionospio malmgreni) dominated the basin area. Sediment type, water depth, and currents were the major factors affecting the structure and spatial distribution of the macrobenthic communities. Compared with other seas, the shallow areas of the Bering Sea showed an extremely high-standing biomass. In particular, the northern shelf area (north of St. Lawrence Islands and west of 170°W), which is primarily controlled by Anadyr Water, is an undersea oasis. In contrast, a deficiency in the downward transport of particulate organic carbon has resulted in a desert-like seabed in the basin area. By comparing our results to previous studies, we found that macrobenthic communities of the Bering Sea have undergone significant structural changes in recent decades, resulting in a decrease in abundance and an increase in biomass. In addition, populations of amphipods and bivalves in the northern shelves have decreased significantly and have been gradually replaced by other species. These changes might be associated with advanced seasonal ice melting, changes in organic carbon input, and global warming, indicating that large-scale ecosystem changes have been occurring in the Bering Sea.
An ecological survey of the abundance and diversity of benthic macrofauna in Indonesian multispecific seagrass beds
LIN Junhui, HUANG Yaqin, ARBI Ucu Yanu, LIN Heshan, AZKAB Muhammad Husni, WANG Jianjun, HE Xuebao, MOU Jianfeng, LIU Kun, ZHANG Shuyi
2018, 37(6): 82-89. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1181-9
Seagrasses are one of the most productive ecosystems in coastal areas and support a wide variety of associated fauna. The tropical Indo-Pacific region is considered to have the highest diversity of seagrass plant species and the largest distribution areas of seagrass, yet the seagrass macrofauna in this region are poorly understood. To help fill this gap in our knowledge, an ecological survey was conducted to describe the abundance and diversity of benthic macrofauna from tropical seagrass beds and to determine between-station variations within a transect and between-site variations in macrofaunal abundance, taxa richness and community structure. Benthic macrofaunal samples associated with seagrass beds were collected with a core sampler on the east coast of North Sulawesi in May 2014 and on the west coast in October 2015. A total of 149 species from 14 higher taxa was collected. The most species-rich groups were polychaetes (56 species, 26% of total individual numbers), decapods (20 species, 9% of total numbers) and amphipods (18 species, 35% of total numbers). Between-station variations within a transect displayed different patterns between the east coast and the west coast. On the east coast, there were marked variations in abundance between stations within a transect for the macrofauna and amphipod assemblages. Both taxa richness and abundance varied with station for the macrofauna and polychaete assemblages on the west coast, resulting from the heterogeneity of the substrate along a transect. One-way ANOSIM together with MDS ordination indicated that macrofaunal community structure in seagrasses differed significantly between the east coast and the west coast, corresponding with the division of seagrasses into two broad categories of habitats, i.e., mangrove-seagrass-reef continuum and seagrass-reef continuum. Compared with other studies in tropical areas, the abundance and diversity of benthic macrofauna in the present study were moderate. The reason for the two markedly distinct macrofaunal communities might be attributed to multiple factors, including sediment pattern, seagrass structure and temporal changes.
Inferring trophic variation for Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the Antarctic Peninsula from the austral fall to early winter using stable isotope analysis
ZHU Guoping, ZHANG Haiting, SONG Qi, YANG Yang, WANG Shaoqin, YANG Qingyuan
2018, 37(6): 90-95. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1176-6
The Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species in the Southern Ocean ecosystem and an important link in the food web of the Antarctic ecosystem. The trophic information for this species during the transition from the austral fall to the winter is important to understand its poorly known overwintering mechanisms. However, the few studies on the topic differ in their results, in terms of both spatial and temporal variables. We investigated the size dependence and monthly and regional variation in δ13C and δ15N values of adult krill in the Antarctic Peninsula, in the austral fall (April to May) and the early winter (June). We aimed to examine the trophic variations of krill occurred during this period, and the relationship between krill and their feeding environment in the Antarctic marine ecosystem. The following results were obtained:(1) no significant relationship was observed between size and the δ13C value of krill, but the δ15N value of krill presented a remarkable association with size; (2) the δ13C values of krill increased during the austral fall, but no remarkable variation existed at the onset of winter, and the δ15N values were not significant different during this period; (3) mean δ15N values of krill differed significantly between the Bransfield Strait and the South Shetland Islands. Our data imply that adult krill present size-, season-, and region-dependent trophic variation during the transition from austral fall to early winter in the Antarctic Peninsula.
Size distribution of individuals in the population of Asterias amurensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) and its reproductive cycle in China
LI Baoquan, ZHOU Zhengquan, LI Bingjun, WANG Quanchao, LI Xiaojing, CHEN Linlin
2018, 37(6): 96-103. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1177-5
To obtain baseline information on the size distribution of individuals in the population and reproductive features of sea star Asterias amurensis, monthly surveys of the population were carried out from May to December 2010 and March to May 2015 in coastal waters off Yantai, China. Spawning period was predicted by gonad and pyloric caeca indices as well as anatomical and histological methods. In the A. amurensis population, both large individuals (>143 mm) and small ones (<42 mm) were present in all sampling months. The population size structure was driven by the appearance of big cohorts of individuals less than 55 mm from May to August. The appearance of small individuals in all months suggested a prolonged spawning period at other sites in this bay or sea stars growing slowly because of food shortage. An arm length is a good predictor to wet body weight for A. amurensis. The development of gonad was relative slow from May to September but rapidly reached a peak of 20.95 in October 2010, and then dropped remarkably, indicating its spawning lasted from October to November. The same phenomenon was found from March to May 2015, suggesting another spawning during March to May, which was also verified by the results of histologic analysis on ovary. The gonad index (GI) and pyloric caeca index (PCI) tended to show a negative relationship. Due to the poor food availability, the reproductive characteristics of sea star were most likely affected by the shellfish mariculturein Yantai coastal waters.
Degradation of malachite green dye by Tenacibaculum sp. HMG1 isolated from Pacific deep-sea sediments
QU Wu, HONG Guolin, ZHAO Jing
2018, 37(6): 104-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1187-3
A deep-sea bacterium from the Pacific Ocean identified as Tenacibaculum sp. HMG1 was found to have strong malachite green (MG) degradation activity. The MG tolerance and decolorizing activities of strain HMG1 were confirmed by bacterial growth and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Strain HMG1 was capable of removing 98.8% of the MG in cultures within 12 h and was able to grow vigorously at 20 mg/L MG. A peroxidase gene detected in the genome of strain HMG1 was found to be involved in the MG biodegradation process. The corresponding recombinant peroxidase (rPOD) demonstrated high degradative activity at 1 000 mg/L MG. Based on the common candidate intermediates, strain HMG1 was inferred to have one primary MG degradation pathway containing rPOD. In addition, five other candidate intermediates of the rPOD-MG degradative process were detected. The optimal conditions for MG degradation were determined and showed that strain HMG1 and the rPOD enzyme could maintain high bioactivity at a low temperature (20℃), variable pH values (6.0-9.0), higher salinities (100 mmol/L) and other factors, such as multiple metal ions, H2O2 and EDTA. MG-tolerant strain Tenacibaculum sp. HMG1 and its peroxidase have prospective applications as environmental amendments for MG degradation during coastal remediation.
Effects of different types of nutrient effluent from shrimp ponds on the seedling growth of Kandelia obovata
TIAN Yuan, CHEN Guangcheng, TANG Feilong, ZHENG Chunfang, YE Yong
2018, 37(6): 112-120. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1207-3
Extensive shrimp ponds are located next to the landward edges of most of mangrove forests in China. A shrimp pond may influence mangroves by (1) routine effluent between pond and tide, and (2) dredging effluent from pond-dredging at least once a year. Our study consisted of two experiments to study the effects of these two effluents on the seedling growth of Kandelia obovata. One experiment simulated the effects of routine effluents. The other simulated four sedimentation thicknesses (0 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm, 8 cm) over mangrove soils by dredging effluent from pond-dredging, and revealed the cumulative effects of dredging effluents on K. obovata. At each of the three fixed salinities, i.e., 5, 15 and 25, routine effluent did not result in significant differences in each of the measured growth parameters of K. obovata seedlings. However, effects of dredging effluent on seedling growth of K. obovata were related with sedimentation thickness. Most growth parameters showed maximum values at sedimentation thickness 4 cm. The data indicated that K. obovata accelerated its growth under moderate sedimentation thicknesses and it was tolerant and adaptable to shrimp pond-cleaning effluent sediments up to about 8 cm in our experiment.