2014 Vol. 33, No. 10

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Upwelling and anthropogenic forcing on phytoplankton productivity and community structure changes in the Zhejiang coastal area over the last 100 years
DUAN Shanshan, XING Lei, ZHANG Hailong, FENG Xuwen, YANG Haili, ZHAO Meixun
2014, 33(10): 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0535-1
Phytoplankton productivity and community structure in marginal seas have been altered significantly during the past three decades, but it is still a challenge to distinguish the forcing mechanisms between climate change and anthropogenic activities. High time-resolution biomarker records of two 210Pb-dated sediment cores (#34: 28.5°N, 122.272°E; CJ12-1269: 28.861 9°N, 122.515 3°E) from the Min-Zhe coastal mud area were compared to reveal changes of phytoplankton productivity and community structure over the past 100 years. Phytoplankton productivity started to increase gradually from the 1970s and increased rapidly after the late 1990s at Site #34; and it started to increase gradually from the middle 1960s and increased rapidly after the late 1980s at Site CJ12-1269. Productivity of Core CJ12-1269 was higher than that of Core #34. Phytoplankton community structure variations displayed opposite patterns in the two cores. The decreasing D/B (dinosterol/brassicasterol) ratio of Core #34 since the 1960s revealed increased diatom contribution to total productivity. In contrast, the increasing D/B ratio of Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950s indicated increased dinoflagellate contribution to total productivity. Both the productivity increase and the increased dinoflagellate contribution in Core CJ12-1269 since the 1950-1960s were mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, as the location was closer to the Changjiang River Estuary with higher nutrient concentration and decreasing Si/N ratios. However, increased diatom contribution in Core #34 is proposed to be caused by increased coastal upwelling, with higher nutrient concentration and higher Si/N ratios.
Paleoenvironmental changes during the late Quaternary as inferred from foraminifera assemblages in the Laizhou Bay
Yao Jing, Yu Hongjun, Xu Xingyong, Yi Liang, Chen Guangquan, Su Qiao
2014, 33(10): 10-18. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0536-0
Controlled by climate changes, there were three large-scale transgressions and regressions around the Bohai Sea during the late Quaternary, which were accepted by most geologists. However, a big controversy still exists about the time when the transgressions occurred separately. In order to find out the process of the paleoenvironmental changes around the Bohai Sea in the late Quaternary, the foraminifera assemblages from a new borehole Lz908 in the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay were studied, and then the transgressive strata were indentified. Combined with accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon 14C (AMS14C) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages, the occurrence time of these transgressions were re-determined. The result showed that three major large-scale transgressions occurred separately at the beginning of marine isotopic stage 7 (MIS7), the last interglacial period (MIS5) and the Holocene. In addition, a small-scale transgression occurred in the mid-MIS6, and the corresponding transgressive stratum was deposited. The transgressive deposition of MIS3 was also discovered in this study. However, the characteristics of the foraminifera indicated the environment during this period was colder than that in the MIS5. By comparison with the global sea-level changes, the paleoenvironmental changes around the Bohai Sea in the late Quaternary can be consistent with the global climate changes.
Geochemical processes controlling dissolved selenium in the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary and its adjacent waters
Wu Xiaodan, Song Jinming, Wu Bin, Li Tiegang, Li Xuegang
2014, 33(10): 19-29. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0537-z
Dissolved selenium in the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary and its adjacent waters was determined by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry to elucidate the source, behavior in estuary, adsorption-desorption process and biological role. In surface water, Se(IV) concentration ranged 0.05-1.14 nmol/L and Se(VI) concentration varied 0.01-1.20 nmol/L, with the means of 0.76 and 0.49 nmol/L, respectively. In bottom water, Se(IV) content varied 0.03-0.27 nmol/L and Se(VI) content ranged 0.04-0.85 nmol/L, with the averages of 0.10 and 0.40 nmol/L, respectively. High level of Se(IV) was observed near the shore with a significant decrease towards the open sea, suggesting the continental input from the adjacent rivers. Large value of Se(VI) was found in bottom water, reflecting the release from suspended sediment. Besides, high value appeared in the same latitude of the Changjiang Estuary and Hangzhou Bay illustrated the effect of lateral mixing and the long-distance transport of selenium. Se(VI), more soluble, occupied higher percentage in aqueous environment. The presence of Se(IV) resulted from the degradation of residue and the reduction of Se(VI) under anaerobic condition. The positive relationship to suspended particulate material (SPM) and negative correlation to depth indicated that Se(IV) tended to be released from the high density particulate matter. Instead, Se(VI) content did not significantly relate to SPM since it generally formed inner-sphere complex to iron hydroxide. Se(IV) content negatively varied to salinity and largely depended on the freshwater dilution and physical mixing. While, Se(VI) level deviated from the dilution line due to the in situ biogeochemical process such as removal via phytoplankton uptake and inputs via organic matter regeneration. As the essential element, Se(IV) was confirmed more bioavailable to phytoplankton growth than Se(VI), and moreover, seemed to be more related to phosphorus than to nitrogen.
Pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate bearing sediments
Sun Shicai, Liu Changling, Ye Yuguang, Liu Yufeng
2014, 33(10): 30-36. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0538-y
To better understand the relationship between the pore capillary pressure and hydrate saturation in sediments, a new method was proposed. First, the phase equilibria of methane hydrate in fine-grained silica sands were measured. As to the equilibrium data, the pore capillary pressure and saturation of methane hydrate were calculated. The results showed that the phase equilibria of methane hydrates in fine-grained silica sands changed due to the depressed activity of pore water caused by the surface group and negatively charged characteristic of silica particles as well as the capillary pressure in small pores together. The capillary pressure increased with the increase of methane hydrate saturation due to the decrease of the available pore space. However, the capillary-saturation relationship could not yet be described quantitatively because of the stochastic habit of hydrate growth.
Combining ability and heterosis analysis over two environments in a diallel cross of three families of the clam Meretrix meretrix
Dai Ping, Wang Hongxia, Xiao Guoqiang, Liu Baozhong
2014, 33(10): 37-42. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0539-x
A 3×3 complete diallel cross comprising three families of the clam Meretrix meretrix (P1, P2 and P3) was used to determine the combining ability of parental families and heterosis of F1 under indoor and openair environments for growth traits. Analysis of variance for shell length and whole body weight indicated highly significant cross effects, environment effects and the interaction of cross by environment. General combining ability (GCA) and specific combing ability exhibited great variation among crosses and between two environments. Pooled over environments, P2 was the top combiner among the three parental families for both traits studied. The cross of P1 and P3 had the highest SCA. Additionally, significant reciprocal effects were observed. For individual environment, about half of the crossbred combinations showed favorable Mid-parent heterosis (MPH) (>1%) for the shell length and whole body weight. Our data has shown that non-additive genetic and reciprocal effects constituted the major sources of genetic variation for both shell length and whole body weight, which indicates that crossbreeding among selective families could further explore the heterotic effects.
Linkages between the biomass of Scomber japonicus and net primary production in the southern East China Sea
Guan Wenjiang, Chen Xinjun, Gao Feng, Li Gang
2014, 33(10): 43-48. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0540-4
Fish biomass is a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management and it is often estimated from ocean primary production (OPP). However, the relationship between the biomass of a fish stock and OPP is always complicated due to a variety of trophic controls in the ecosystem. In this paper, we examine the quantitative relationship between the biomass of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and net primary production (NPP) in the southern East China Sea (SECS), using catch and effort data from the Chinese mainland large light-purse seine fishery logbook and NPP derived from remote sensing. We further discuss the mechanisms of trophic control in regulating this relationship. The results show a significant non-linear relationship exists between standardized CPUE (Catch-Per-Unit-Effort) and NPP (P<0.05). This relationship can be described by a convex parabolic curve, where the biomass of chub mackerel increases with NPP to a maximum and then decreases when the NPP exceeds this point. The results imply that the ecosystem in the SECS is subject to complex trophic controls. We speculate that the change in abundance of key species at intermediate trophic levels and/or interspecific competition might contribute to this complex relationship.
Population dynamics of Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus from Pakistani waters
Kalhoro Muhsan Ali, Liu Qun, Memon Khadim Hussain, Chang Mohammad Saleem, Zhang Kui
2014, 33(10): 49-57. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0401-1
Japanese threadfin bream Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) is among the most abundant and commercially important species in Pakistan. From the coast of Pakistan, four demersal trawl surveys in October-November 2009 and May-June, August, October and November in 2010 were carried out. The purpose of this study is to estimate the population dynamics and status of the stock of the N. japonicus from Pakistani waters based on the research trawl surveys from the research area. The data consist of n=784 length-weight pairs and n=7 530 length frequency with the maximum length and weight of 29 cm and 358 g respectively. The length frequency data were analyzed using ELEFAN method in FiSAT computer package. The parameters of length and weight relationship were b=2.778, a=0.032 and R2=0.973. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth function parameters were L=30.45 cm, K=0.270 year-1. Based on length-converted catch curve analysis the total mortality (Z) during this study was estimated at 0.960 year-1. The natural mortality coefficient (M) was 0.74 year-1 using Pauly's equation (the annual average sea surface temperature was 27℃), therefore, the fishing mortality coefficients (F) were 0.22 year-1. The yield per recruit analysis indicated that when tc was 2, Fmax was estimated at 1.2 and F0.1 at 1.1. When tc was 1, Fmax was estimated at 0.95 and F0.1 at 0.8. Because current age at first capture is about 1 year and Fcurrent was 0.22, Fcurrent is smaller than F0.1 and Fmax, which indicated that the fishery is about in a safe condition. When using Gulland (1971) biological reference point, Fopt was equals to M (0.74). The current fishing mortality rate of 0.22 was smaller than the target biological reference point.
Biodiversity and seasonal variation of benthic macrofauna in Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India
Dalia Susan V, Satheesh Kumar P., Pillai N. G. K
2014, 33(10): 58-73. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0541-3
From the Indian coast only limited data are available on the benthic fauna of the seagrass communities. In this study, seasonal variation in the distribution of macrobenthos and influence of environmental parameters was explored at four seagrass beds and two mangrove stations along the Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India, from September 1999 to August 2001. A total of 160 macrobenthic species from eight major groups represented the macrofauna of the Minicoy Island. Of the identified taxa, molluscs 70 (gastropods 41.46%, bivalves 7.5%), polychaetes 27 (16.88%), crustaceans 30 (18.75%), echinoderms 11 (6.88%) and remaining others. Average seasonal abundance of benthic macrofauna ranged from 219 to 711 ind./m2, species diversity varied from 1.45 to 3.64 bits per individual, species richness index ranged from 4.01 to 26.17, evenness 0.69 to 1.66. In general, the higher abundance and species diversity was noticed in southern seagrass stations and northern seagrass stations, but in the mangrove stations comparatively low species diversity was observed. Three-way analysis of variance indicated that all communities resulted as being significantly different between seagrass and mangrove station, mainly when the seasonal interaction was considered. Multivariate analyses were employed to help define benthic characteristic and the relationship between environmental parameters at the six monitoring stations. Results of cluster analyses and multidimensional scale plot suggest that for mangrove region, different physiographic provinces, lower salinity, dissolved oxygen and sediment biotic structure have a higher influence on the species composition and diversity than other oceanographic conditions.
Molecular phylogeography and population genetic structure of the planktonic copepod Calanus sinicus Brodsky in the coastal waters of China
Huang Yousong, Liu Guangxing, Chen Xiaofeng
2014, 33(10): 74-84. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0542-2
Planktonic copepod Calanus sinicus is the dominant meso-zooplankton in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. To better understand its population dynamics and phylogeographic patterns, 243 C. sinicus individuals were collected from seven locations across the shelf waters of China and its population genetics was studied by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) sequences analyses. Thirty-nine different sequences, or haplotypes, were detected with moderate haplotype diversity (h=0.749) and low nucleotide diversity (π=0.003) for all populations. The evolutionary divergence between geographic populations varied from 0.24% to 0.37%, indicative of very limited genetic differentiation. Visualized minimum spanning network (MSN) and phylogenetic analysis of all the detected haplotypes did not reveal any clear phylogeographic pattern. Furthermore, AMOVA data showed no significant spatial population differentiation existed among the individuals collected across China shelf waters. Pairwise FST values showed that population collected from northwest of the East China Sea (ECS) displayed a low difference to other populations. Mismatch distribution analyses and neutrality tests indicated that C. sinicus might undergo a demographic/population expansion. No significant population genetic structuring was detected, indicating an extensive gene flow among the C. sinicus populations. Our results provide molecular evidence for the hypothesis that C. sinicus in the northwestern South China Sea in winter is transported from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeast monsoon period.
Bacterial diversity in sediments of core MD05-2902 from the Xisha Trough, the South China Sea
Li Tao, Wang Peng
2014, 33(10): 85-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0543-1
A sediment core MD05-2902 was collected from the deep-sea basin of the Xisha Trough. The vertical distribution and diversity of bacteria in the core was investigated through ten sub-sampling with an interval of 1 m using bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic bio-marker. Eighteen phylogenetic groups were identified from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The dominant bacterial groups were JS1, Planctomycetes and Chloroflexi, which accounted for 30.6%, 16.6%, and 15.6% of bacterial clones in the libraries, respectively. In order to reveal the relationship between biotic and abiotic data, a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis was performed. The result revealed that the δ15N, δ13C, total organic carbon and total organic nitrogen possibly influenced the bacterial community structure. This study expanded our knowledge of the biogeochemical cycling in the Xisha Trough sediment.
Microbial community structure and nitrogenase gene diversity of sediment from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent field on the Southwest Indian Ridge
Wu Yuehong, Cao Yi, Wang Chunsheng, Wu Min, Aharon Oren, Xu Xuewei
2014, 33(10): 94-104. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0544-0
A sediment sample was collected from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent field located at a depth of 2 951 m on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on the prokaryotic community using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. Within the Archaea, the dominant clones were from marine benthic group E (MBGE) and marine group I (MGI) belonging to the phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota, respectively. More than half of the bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria, and most fell within the Gammaproteobacteria. No epsilon Proteobacterial sequence was observed. Additional phyla were detected including the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Chloroflexi, Chlorobi, Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate divisions OD1, OP11, WS3 and TM6, confirming their existence in hydrothermal vent environments. The detection of nifH gene suggests that biological nitrogen fixation may occur in the hydrothermal vent field of the Southwest Indian Ridge. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that only Clusters I and III nifH were present. This is consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of the microbial 16S rRNA genes, indicating that Bacteria play the main role in nitrogen fixation in this hydrothermal vent environment.
Development and utility of EST-SSR markers in Ulva prolifera of the South Yellow Sea
Zhang Lei, Wang Guoliang, Liu Cui, Chi Shan, Liu Tao
2014, 33(10): 105-113. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0545-z
Ulva species can grow rapidly in nutrient-rich habitats causing green tides and marine fouling. A more complete understanding of the reasons behind these outbreaks is urgently required. Accordingly, this study attempts to use microsatellite markers based expressed sequence tag (EST) to analyze the genetic variation of several Ulva prolifera populations in the South Yellow Sea of China. Two hundred and thirty-eight SSRs were identified from 8 179 unique ESTs (6 203 newly sequenced and 1 976 downloaded from NCBI database) and 37 primer pairs were successfully designed according to the ESTs; 11 pairs were selected to detect the genetic diversity and relationship of 69 attached U. prolifera samples and 13 free-floating samples collected from coastal and off-coast areas of the South Yellow Sea. The results of cross-species transferability showed that six of the 11 EST-SSR primers could give good amplification in other five Ulva species and the average allele number was 4.67. Genetic variation analysis indicated that all 82 U. prolifera samples were clearly divided and most samples collected from the same site clustered together as a group in the dendrogram tree produced by unweighted pair-group mean analysis (UPGMA) method and the cluster results showed some consistency with the geographical origins. In addition, 13 free-floating samples (except HT-001-2) were grouped as a single clade separated from the attached samples.
Studies on the isolation and culture of protoplasts from Kappaphycus alvarezii
Zhang Si, Liu Cui, Jin Yuemei, Chi Shan, Tang Xianming, Chen Fuxiao, Fang Xu, Liu Tao
2014, 33(10): 114-123. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0546-y
In this study, protoplasts were successfully isolated from Kappaphycus alvarezii using snail enzymes, abalone enzymes and cellulase. The optimum enzymic ratio was fixed to be 20% of abalone enzyme, 12% of cellulase and the osmotic stabilizer was 2.0 mol/L glucose. The optimum enzymic hydrolysis conditions were found to be dark enzymolysis at 30℃ continuing for 4.0 h. The resultant density and yield of protoplasts achieved 32.60×104 mL-1, 65.20×104 g-1 tissue for Kappaphycus alvarezii. Finally, under the temperature of 20℃, light intensity of 1 500-2 000 lx and photoperiod of 12 h/d, two developmental pathways were investigated: (1) callus-like cell mass and regenerated plantlet occurred on protoplast; (2) young shoots and calluslike cell mass occurred in tissue blocks after enzymolysis.
Seasonal variations of phytoplankton phosphorus stress in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass
Wang Dan, Huang Bangqin, Liu Xin, Liu Guimei, Wang Hui
2014, 33(10): 124-135. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0547-x
The Yellow Sea is located between the China Mainland and the Korean Peninsula, representing a typical shallow epicontinental sea. The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) is one of the most important physical features in the Yellow Sea. The characteristics of vertical profiles and seasonal variations of biogenic elements in the YSCWM may lead the variations of nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and phosphorus stress of phytoplankton. In this study, the authors surveyed the seasonal variations of phytoplankton phosphorus stress with emphasis on the effect of the YSCWM during the four cruises in April and October 2006, March and August 2007. Using both bulk and single-cell alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) assays, this study evaluated phosphorus status of phytoplankton community, succession of phytoplankton community and ecophysiological responses of phytoplankton to phosphorus in the typical region of the YSCWM. With the occurrence of the YSCWM, especially the variations of concentration of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), the results of bulk APA appeared corresponding seasonal variations. Along Transects A and B, the mean APA in August was the highest, and that in March was the lowest. According to the ELF-labeled assay’s results, seasonal variations of the ELF-labeled percentages within dominant species indicated that diatoms were dominant in March, April and October, while dinoflagellates were dominant in August. During the four cruises, the ELF-labeled percentages of diatoms except Paralia sulcata showed that diatoms were not phosphorus deficient in April 2006 at all, but suffered from severe phosphorus stress in August 2007. In comparison, the ELF-labeled percentages of dinoflagellates were all above 50% during the four time series, which meant dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium and Scrippsiella, sustained perennial phosphorus stress.