2021 Vol. 40, No. 3

2021-3 Contents
2021, (3): 1-2.
Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Spatiotemporal characteristics of sea ice transport in the Baffin Bay and its association with atmospheric variability
Weifu Sun, Haibo Bi, Min Fu, Xi Liang, Yunhe Wang, Yu Liang, Jue Huang, Haijun Huang, Liwen Yan, Qinglong Yu, Shuang Liang
2021, 40(3): 1-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1720-7
Sea ice export through the Baffin Bay plays a vital role in modulating the sea ice cover variability in the Labrador Sea. In this study, satellite-derived sea ice products are used to obtain the sea ice area flux (SIAF) through the three passages in the Baffin Bay (referred to as A, B, and C for the north, middle, and south passages, respectively). The spatial variability of the monthly sea ice drift in the Baffin Bay is presented. The interannual variability and trends in SIAF via the three passages are outlined. The connection to several large-scale atmospheric circulation modes is assessed. Over the period of 1988–2015, the average annual (October to the following September) SIAF amounts to 555×103 km2, 642×103 km2, and 551×103 km2 through Passages A, B, and C, respectively. These quantities are less than that observed through the Fram Strait (FS, 707×103 km2) of the corresponding period. The positive trends in annual SIAF, on the order of 53.1×103 km2/(10 a) and 43.2×103 km2/(10 a) (significant at the 95% confidence level), are identified at Passages A and B, respectively. The trend of the south passage (C), however, is slightly negative (–13.3×103 km2/(10 a), not statistically significant). The positive trends in annual SIAF through the Passages A and B are primarily attributable to the significant increases after 2000. The connection between the Baffin Bay sea ice export and the North Atlantic Oscillation is not significant over the studied period. By contrast, the association with the cross-gate sea level pressure difference is robust in the Baffin Bay (R equals 0.69 to 0.71, depending on the passages considered), but relatively weaker than that over FS (R=0.74).
Submesoscale eddies in the East China Sea detected from SAR images
Yuxiang Ji, Guangjun Xu, Changming Dong, Jingsong Yang, Changshui Xia
2021, 40(3): 18-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1714-5
Seven-year (2005–2011) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are applied to study oceanic eddies in the East China Sea. It is found that most of these eddies detected from the SAR images are less than 10 km, which are submesoscale eddies. Seasonal differences are evident in the distribution of eddies, with the highest and the lowest number of eddies noted in summer and winter, respectively. Since slick streaks in SAR images look dark, an eddy identified due to the slicks is referred to as “black eddy”. As a result of wave-current interactions in the zones of current shear, it can be seen that an eddy exhibits a bright curve, the eddy is called “white eddy”. During the seven years, 95 black eddies and 50 white eddies are identified in the study area. Black eddies are found in the whole study area while white eddies are mainly distributed in the vicinity of the Kuroshio Current. This study suggests that the distribution of the white eddy is denser around the Kuroshio because of the strong shear in the Kuroshio region. In terms of the eddy sizes, white eddies are generally smaller than black eddies.
Long-term changes in sea surface temperature (SST) within the southern Levantine Basin
Tarek M. El-Geziry
2021, 40(3): 27-33. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1709-2
Knowledge of sea surface temperature (SST) behaviour is vital for long-term climate scenarios. This study highlights essential outcomes about the distinguishable and unsurprising warming of the SST along the southern border of the Levantine Basin. The analysis is based on monthly SST data for the period 1948–2018. The southern Levantine Basin has undergone SST increase, during the last 71 years. In this study, a consistent warming trend has been found for the analysed SST data series, with a rate of 0.04°C/a, i.e., 0.4°C/(10 a). From 1975 to 1991 the mean annual SST was 17.1°C, and this increased to be 19.2°C, over the period 2002–2018. Results revealed two opposite trends of variability: a decreasing trend (–0.06°C/a) over the period 1975–1991, and an increasing trend (0.2°C/a) from 2002 to 2018. Over the period 1948–2018, positive mean annual SST anomalies had an average of 1.8°C, and negative anomalies had an average of –1.1°C. The lowest SST total increase was found from January to April, with values about 0.03°C, while the highest warming appeared from June to September. The driving mechanisms behind the SST changes need to be more investigated, to understand the future trends and impacts of climate change in the Levantine Basin.
Observational characteristics and dynamic mechanism of low-salinity water lens for the offshore detachment of the Changjiang River diluted water in August 2006
Zhenyu Liu, Wenjing Zhang, Xuejun Xiong, Shouxian Zhu
2021, 40(3): 34-45. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1710-9
The Changjiang River diluted water (CDW) spreads into the East China Sea (ECS) primarily in a plume pattern, although in some years, low-salinity water lenses (LSWLs) detach from the main body of the CDW. In-situ observations indicate that in August 2006, a LSWL detached from the main body of the CDW near the river mouth. In this paper, the effects of winds, tides, baroclinity and upwelling on LSWLs are explored with a three-dimensional model. The results show that: (1) winds play a crucial role in these detachment events because wind-induced northerly Eulerian residual currents impose an uneven force on the CDW and cut it off, thus forming a LSWL; (2) upwelling carries high-salinity water from the lower layer to the upper layer, truncating the low-salinity water tongue vertically, which is conducive to the detachment and maintenance of LSWLs; and (3) upwelling during the evolution of a LSWL is caused by the combined effects of winds and tides. The influences of wind-induced upwelling are mainly near the shore, whereas the upwelling along the 30 m isobath is predominantly affected by tides, with the effect increasing from neap tide to spring tide.
An assessment of Arctic cloud water paths in atmospheric reanalyses
Mingyi Gu, Zhaomin Wang, Jianfen Wei, Xiaoyong Yu
2021, 40(3): 46-57. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1706-5
The role of Arctic clouds in the recent rapid Arctic warming has attracted much attention. However, Arctic cloud water paths (CWPs) from reanalysis datasets have not been well evaluated. This study evaluated the CWPs as well as LWPs (cloud liquid water paths) and IWPs (cloud ice water paths) from five reanalysis datasets (MERRA-2, MERRA, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ERA5) against the COSP (Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project Observations Simulator Package) output for MODIS from the MERRA-2 CSP (COSP satellite simulator) collection (defined as M2Modis in short). Averaged over 1980–2015 and over the Arctic region (north of 60°N), the mean CWPs of these five datasets range from 49.5 g/m2 (MERRA) to 82.7 g/m2 (ERA-Interim), much smaller than that from M2Modis (140.0 g/m2). However, the spatial distributions of CWPs, show similar patterns among these reanalyses, with relatively small values over Greenland and large values over the North Atlantic. Consistent with M2Modis, these reanalyses show larger LWPs than IWPs, except for ERA-Interim. However, MERRA-2 and MERRA underestimate the ratio of IWPs to CWPs over the entire Arctic, while ERA-Interim and JRA-55 overestimate this ratio. ERA5 shows the best performance in terms of the ratio of IWPs to CWPs. All datasets exhibit larger CWPs and LWPs in summer than in winter. For M2Modis, IWPs hold seasonal variation similar with LWPs over the land but opposite over the ocean. Following the Arctic warming, the trends in LWPs and IWPs during 1980~2015 show that LWPs increase and IWPs decrease across all datasets, although not statistically significant. Correlation analysis suggests that all datasets have similar interannual variability. The study further found that the inclusion of re-evaporation processes increases the humidity in the atmosphere over the land and that a more realistic liquid/ice phase can be obtained by independently treating the liquid and ice water contents.
Evaluation of reanalysis surface wind products with quality-assured buoy wind measurements along the north coast of the South China Sea
Jing Cha, Xinyu Lin, Xiaogang Guo, Xiaofang Wan, Dawei You
2021, 40(3): 58-69. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1746-x
Three archived reanalysis wind vectors at 10 m height in the wind speed range of 2–15 m/s, namely, the second version of the National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSv2), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting Interim Reanalysis (ERA-I) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) Reanalysis 2 (NCEP-2) products, are evaluated by a comparison with the winds measured by moored buoys in coastal regions of the South China Sea (SCS). The buoy data are first quality controlled by extensive techniques that help eliminate degraded measurements. The evaluation results reveal that the CFSv2 wind vectors are most consistent with the buoy winds (with average biases of 0.01 m/s and 1.76°). The ERA-I winds significantly underestimate the buoy wind speed (with an average bias of –1.57 m/s), while the statistical errors in the NCEP-2 wind direction have the largest magnitude. The diagnosis of the reanalysis wind errors shows the residuals of all three reanalysis wind speeds (reanalysis-buoy) decrease with increasing buoy wind speed, suggesting a narrower wind speed range than that of the observations. Moreover, wind direction errors are examined to depend on the magnitude of the wind speed and the wind speed biases. In general, the evaluation of three reanalysis wind products demonstrates that CFSv2 wind vectors are the closest to the winds along the north coast of the SCS and are sufficiently accurate to be used in numerical models.
Marine Geology
Tectonic implications of the subduction of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge beneath the Kyushu, southwest Japan
Chenglong Xia, Yanpeng Zheng, Baohua Liu, Qingfeng Hua, Long Ma, Xianfeng Li, Qiuhong Xie
2021, 40(3): 70-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1711-8
The Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR), a remnant arc on the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP), is subducting beneath the Kyushu, southwest Japan. Influenced by the subducting KPR, the Kyushu subduction zone corresponding to the KPR is significantly different from Shikoku subduction zone in terms of gravity anomalies, seismicity, the stress state, and the subducting slab morphology. Significant negative free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies are observed in a prolonged area of KPR, southeast of the Miyazaki Plain, indicating that this is where KPR overlaps the overriding plate. The gravity anomaly in this area is much lower than that in other areas where the inferred KPR extends, suggesting that the subduction of the buoyant KPR may cause the lower mantle density to decrease. More earthquakes have occurred in Hyuga-nada region where the KPR subducts than in Shikoku forearc and other areas in the Kyushu forearc, indicating that the subduction of the KPR enhances the local coupling between the subducting and overriding plates. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) mechanism of earthquakes shows that stress is concentrated in the accumulated crust beneath the Kyushu forearc corresponding to the KPR, and the shallow thrusting events in the obducting plate are caused by the KPR subduction. The buoyant KPR, with a large volume of low-density sediments, was responsible for the differences of the subduction depth and dip angle of the subducting Philippine Sea (PS) slab between northern Kyushu and Shikoku. The seismic gaps and the sudden change of the dipping angle of the subducting PS slab indicate that slab tear may have occurred along the west side of the KPR beneath southwest Kyushu. A two-tear model was proposed, and the subduction of the buoyant KPR was believed to play an important role in the slab tear.
A buried submarine canyon in the northwest South China Sea: architecture, development processes and implications for hydrocarbon exploration
Bin Wang, Fuliang Lyu, Shuang Li, Jian Li, Zhili Yang, Li Li, Xuefeng Wang, Yintao Lu, Taotao Yang, Jingwu Wu, Guozhong Sun, Hongxia Ma, Xiaoyong Xu
2021, 40(3): 84-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1700-y
High-resolution multichannel seismic data enables the discovery of a previous, undocumented submarine canyon (Huaguang Canyon) in the Qiongdongnan Basin, northwest South China Sea. The Huaguang Canyon with a NW orientation is 140 km in length, and 2.5 km to 5 km in width in its upper reach and 4.6 km to 9.5 km in width in its lower reach. The head of the Huaguang Canyon is close to the Xisha carbonate platform and its tail is adjacent to the central canyon. This buried submarine canyon is formed by gravity flows from the Xisha carbonate platform when the sea level dropped in the early stage of the late Miocene (~10.5 Ma). The internal architecture of the Huaguang Canyon is mainly characterized by high amplitude reflections, indicating that this ancient submarine canyon was filled with coarse-grained sediments. The sediment was principally scourced from the Xisha carbonate platform. In contrast to other buried large-scale submarine canyons (central canyon and Zhongjian Canyon) in the Qiongdongnan Basin, the Huaguang Canyon displays later formation time, smaller width and length, and single sediment supply. The coarse-grained deposits within Huaguang Canyon provide a good environment for reserving oil and gas, and the muddy fillings in Huaguang Canyon have been identified as regional caps. Therefore, Huaguang Canyon is potential area for future hydrocarbon exploration in the northwest South China Sea. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of submarine canyons formed in carbonate environment.
Facies character and geochemical signature in the late Quaternary meteoric diagenetic carbonate succession at the Xisha Islands, South China Sea
Wanli Chen, Xiaoxia Huang, Shiguo Wu, Gang Liu, Haotian Wei, Jiaqing Wu
2021, 40(3): 94-111. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1713-6
The late Quaternary shallow-water carbonates have been altered by a variety of diagenetic processes, and further influenced by high-amplitude global and regional sea level changes. This study utilizes a new borehole drilled on the Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands to investigate meteoric diagenetic alteration in the late Quaternary shallow-water carbonates. Petrographic, mineralogical, stable isotopic and elemental data provide new insights into the meteoric diagenetic processes of the reef limestone. The results show the variation in the distribution of aragonite, high-Mg calcite (HMC) and low-Mg calcite (LMC) divides the shallow-water carbonates in Core SSZK1 into three intervals, which are Unit I (31.20–55.92 m, LMC), Unit II (18.39–31.20 m, aragonite and LMC) and Unit III (upper 18.39 m of core, aragonite, LMC and HMC). Various degrees of meteoric diagenesis exist in the identified three units. The lowermost Unit I has suffered almost complete freshwater diagenesis, whereas the overlying Units II and III have undergone incompletely meteoric diagenesis. The amount of time that limestone has been in the freshwater diagenetic environment has the largest impact on the degree of meteoric diagenesis. Approximately four intact facies/water depth cycles are recognized. The cumulative depletion of elements such as strontium (Sr), sodium (Na) and sulphur (S) caused by duplicated meteoric diagenesis in the older reef sequences are distinguished from the younger reef sequences. This study provides a new record of meteoric diagenesis, which is well reflected by whole-rock mineralogy and geochemistry.
Marine Information Science
Ocean surface current retrieval and imaging with a new shore-based X-band radar based on time-shifted up-and-down linear frequency modulated signal
Yijun He, Xin Song, Baochang Liu, Na Yi, Xiuzhong Li
2021, 40(3): 112-121. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1715-4
This paper proposes a multifunction radar that can not only measure sea currents but also perform sea-surface imaging. The fundamental aspect of the proposed radar comprises transmitting time-shifted up-and-down continuous wave linear frequency modulated signals that allow for the offset of two one-dimensional range images of the sea surface that respectively correspond to the upward linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal and the downward LFM signal. Owing to the Doppler frequency shift from the sea surface, a range offset, which is proportional to the radial velocity of the sea surface, occurs between the upward and downward LFM signals. By using the least-squares linear fitting method in the transformed domain, the range offset can be measured and the current velocity can be retrieved. Finally, we verify the accuracy of current measurement with simulation results.
Sea surface temperature retrieval based on simulated microwave polarimetric measurements of a one-dimensionalsynthetic aperture microwave radiometer
Mengyan Feng, Weihua Ai, Wen Lu, Chengju Shan, Shuo Ma, Guanyu Chen
2021, 40(3): 122-133. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1712-7
Compared with traditional real aperture microwave radiometers, one-dimensional synthetic aperture microwave radiometers have higher spatial resolution. In this paper, we proposed to retrieve sea surface temperature using a one-dimensional synthetic aperture microwave radiometer that operates at frequencies of 6.9 GHz, 10.65 GHz, 18.7 GHz and 23.8 GHz at multiple incidence angles. We used the ERA5 reanalysis data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and a radiation transmission forward model to calculate the model brightness temperature. The brightness temperature measured by the spaceborne one-dimensional synthetic aperture microwave radiometer was simulated by adding Gaussian noise to the model brightness temperature. Then, a backpropagation (BP) neural network algorithm, a random forest (RF) algorithm and two multiple linear regression algorithms (RE1 and RE2) were developed to retrieve sea surface temperature from the measured brightness temperature within the incidence angle range of 0°–65°. The results show that the retrieval errors of the four algorithms increase with the increasing Gaussian noise. The BP achieves the lowest retrieval errors at all incidence angles. The retrieval error of the RE1 and RE2 decrease first and then increase with the incidence angle and the retrieval error of the RF is contrary to that of RE1 and RE2.
Measuring solar irradiance profiles in the Arctic sea ice using fiber optic spectrometry via inclined holes
Zexia Qiu, Hangzhou Wang, Tao Li, Hong Song, Yuanqian Wu, Tingting Yan, Ying Chen
2021, 40(3): 134-141. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1708-3
An irradiance profile measurement approach and profiling system were developed to measure the solar irradiance profile of the Arctic sea ice using fiber optic spectrometry. The approach involved using a miniature spectrometer to sense light signals collected and transmitted from a fiber probe. The fiber probe was small, and could thus move freely in inclined bore holes drilled in sea ice with its optical entrance pointing upward. The input-output relationship of the system was analyzed and built. Influence factors that determined the system output were analyzed. A correctional system output approach was proposed to correct the influence of these factors, and to obtain the solar irradiance profile based on the measurements outputted by this system. The overall performance of the system was examined in two ice floes in the Arctic during the 9th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition. The measured solar irradiance profiles were in good agreement with those obtained using other commercially available oceanographic radiometers. The derived apparent optical properties of sea ice were comparable to those of similar sea ice measured by other optical instruments.
The construction of high precision geostrophic currents based on new gravity models of GOCE and satellite altimetry data
Wenyan Sui, Junru Guo, Jun Song, Zhiliang Liu, Meng Wang, Xibin Li, Yanzhao Fu, Yongquan Li, Yu Cai, Linhui Wang, Lingli Li, Xiaofang Guo, Wenting Zuo
2021, 40(3): 142-152. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1707-4
The new gravity field models of gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE), TIM_R6 and DIR_R6, were released by the European Space Agency (ESA) in June 2019. The sixth generation of gravity models have the highest possible signal and lowest error levels compared with other GOCE-only gravity models, and the accuracy is significantly improved. This is an opportunity to build high precision geostrophic currents. The mean dynamic topography and geostrophic currents have been calculated by the 5th (TIM_R5 and DIR_R5), 6th (TIM_R6 and DIR_R6) release of GOCE gravity field models and ITSG-Grace2018 of GRACE gravity field model in this study. By comparison with the drifter results, the optimal filtering lengths of them have been obtained (for DIR_R5, DIR_R6, TIM_R5 and TIM_R6 models are 1° and for ITSG-Grace2018 model is 1.1°). The filtered results show that the geostrophic currents obtained by the GOCE gravity field models can better reflect detailed characteristics of ocean currents. The total geostrophic speed based on the TIM_R6 model is similar to the result of the DIR_R6 model with standard deviation (STD) of 0.320 m/s and 0.321 m/s, respectively. The STD of the total velocities are 0.333 m/s and 0.325 m/s for DIR_R5 and TIM_R5. When compared with ITSG-Grace2018 results, the STD (0.344 m/s) of total geostrophic speeds is larger than GOCE results, and the accuracy of geostrophic currents obtained by ITSG-Grace2018 is lower. And the absolute errors are mainly distributed in the areas with faster speeds, such as the Antarctic circumpolar circulation, equatorial region, Kuroshio and Gulf Stream areas. After the remove-restore technique was applied to TIM_R6 MDT, the STD of total geostrophic speeds dropped to 0.162 m/s.
Mapping wind by the first-order Bragg scattering of broad-beam high-frequency radar
Yuming Zeng, Hao Zhou, Zhen Tian, Biyang Wen
2021, 40(3): 153-166. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1752-z
Mapping wind with high-frequency (HF) radar is still a challenge. The existing second-order spectrum based wind speed extraction method has the problems of short detection distances and low angular resolution for broad-beam HF radar. To solve these problems, we turn to the first-order Bragg spectrum power and propose a space recursion method to map surface wind. One month of radar and buoy data are processed to build a wind spreading function model and a first-order spectrum power model describing the relationship between the maximum of first-order spectrum power and wind speed in different sea states. Based on the theoretical propagation attenuation model, the propagation attenuation is calculated approximately by the wind speed in the previous range cell to compensate for the first-order spectrum in the current range-azimuth cell. By using the compensated first-order spectrum, the final wind speed is extracted in each cell. The first-order spectrum and wind spreading function models are tested using one month of buoy data, which illustrates the applicability of the two models. The final wind vector map demonstrates the potential of the method.