2018 Vol. 37, No. 8

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Marine Chemistry
Analyzing biases of nitrogen contents and δ15N values arising from acidified marine sediments with different CaCO3 concentrations
PENG Yajun, LIU Dongyan, WANG Yujue, RICHARD Pierre, KEESING John K.
2018, 37(8): 1-5. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1188-2
In some studies, the researchers pretreated and measured organic carbon, nitrogen and their isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of marine sediment together, to save costs and resources of analysis. However, the procedure of acidification to remove inorganic carbon for analysing δ13C can affect the values of nitrogen and δ15N, and the biases vary a lot depending on the CaCO3 contents of sediments. In this study, the biases of total nitrogen (TN) and δ15N values arising from acidified sediments were compared between the CaCO3-poor (1%-16%) and CaCO3-rich (20%-40%) samples. TN and δ15N values were altered during acid treatment (without centrifugation) that possibly led to N-containing compounds volatilization. For CaCO3-poor samples, acidification led to a range of 0%-40% TN losses and 0‰-2‰ shift in δ15N values; and 10%-60% TN losses and 1‰-14‰ shift in δ15N values for CaCO3-rich samples. The biases from most samples exceeded the precision of the instrument (0.002% for TN and 0.08‰ for δ15N), and high biases could mislead our judgment for the environmental implication of the data. Thus, avoiding co-analysis of organic carbon, nitrogen and their isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in sediments, even for CaCO3-poor marine sediments, is necessary.
Seasonal variations and distributions of dissolved free and total carbohydrates at the İzmir Bay, Aegean Sea
2018, 37(8): 6-14. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1229-x
Seasonal variations and distributions of dissolved carbohydrate concentrations at the İzmir Bay were investigated with salinity, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels to understand their relationships. Samples were collected from surface, subsurface and bottom depths at seven stations. DOC concentrations ranged from 32.2 to 244.2 μmol/L, and in general, DOC levels increased from winter to summer, then slightly decreased in autumn. Monosaccharide (MCHO), polysaccharide (PCHO) and total dissolved carbohydrate (TDCHO) levels were found between 0.7-8.3, 0.7-19.5, and 2.6-24.6 μmol/L. DOC, MCHO, PCHO and TDCHO levels were found higher in middle-inner bays, under the influence of anthropogenic inputs, compared to outer bay. Seasonal changes of MCHO/DOC, PCHO/DOC and TDCHO/DOC ratios were statistically significant (p<0.05) and the ratios showed decrease trends from winter to summer-autumn seasons. Distributions of TDCHO/DOC ratios at wide ranges (2.5%-42.3%) indicated the presence of newly forming and degrading fractions of DOM. According to results of factor analysis, Chl a, MCHO and TDCHO were explained in the same factor groups. In conclusion, the results showed that dissolved carbohydrate levels in the İzmir Bay might be influenced by biological processes and terrestrial/anthropogenic inputs.
Marine Biology
Fish diversity and molecular taxonomy in the Prydz Bay during the 29th CHINARE
LI Yuan, ZHANG Liyan, SONG Puqing, ZHANG Ran, WANG Liangming, LIN Longshan
2018, 37(8): 15-20. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1228-y
In 2013, the 29th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) prospected the Prydz Bay on the Antarctic continental shelf, and the Chinese R/V Xuelong icebreaker sampled all of the examined locations. The nature of Antarctic fish diversity in the high-latitude Prydz Bay is virtually unknown, and the accuracy of relevant estimates has not been established. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this diversity and propose protective measures. In total, ninety-nine specimens were collected from various locations. To overcome uncertainties associated with identifying species based on morphology, DNA barcoding (COI gene) was employed to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with delimited references from NCBI. Twenty-two species representing six families were unambiguously identified from a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree and barcoding gaps. With the morphological identification, thirteen species were identified correctly, five species were identified correctly at the genus level, and four species were identified at the close sister species level. Notothenioid dominance was not evident in the Prydz Bay, in contrast to other published studies. The low species diversity and catch biomass during this CHINARE were severely constrained by limited fishing methods and localized sites, which led to biased underestimation. Our analyses indicate that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of fish species in the Prydz Bay. The identification and distribution of Antarctic fish should be an integral component of understanding Antarctic fish biodiversity and biogeography, and large-scale studies are necessary for the further taxonomic identification of Antarctic fish.
The impact of natural mortality variations on the performance of management procedures for Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius) in the Yellow Sea, China
CHEN Ning, ZHANG Chongliang, SUN Ming, XU Binduo, XUE Ying, REN Yiping, CHEN Yong
2018, 37(8): 21-30. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1234-0
Natural mortality rate (M) is one of the essential parameters in fishery stock assessment, however, the estimation of M is commonly rough and the changes of M due to natural and anthropogenic impacts have long been ignored. The simplification of M estimation and the influence of M variations on the assessment and management of fisheries stocks have been less well understood. This study evaluated the impacts of the changes in natural mortality of Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius) on their management strategies with data-limited methods. We tested the performances of a variety of management procedures (MPs) with the variations of M in mackerel stock using diverse estimation methods. The results of management strategies evaluation showed that four management procedures DCAC, SPMSY, curE75 and minlenLopt1 were more robust to the changes of M than others; however, their performance were substantially influenced by the significant decrease of M from the 1970s to 2017. Relative population biomass (measure as the probability of B>0.5BMSY) increased significantly with the decrease of M, whereas the possibility of overfishing showed remarkable variations across MPs. The decrease of M had minor effects on the long-term yield of curE75 and minlenLopt1, and reduced the fluctuation of yield (measure as the probability of AAVY<15%) for DCAC, SPMSY. In general, the different methods for M estimation showed minor effects on the performance of MPs, whereas the temporal changes of M showed substantial influences. Considering the fishery status of Spanish mackerel in China, we recommended that curE75 has the best trade-off between fishery resources exploitation and conservation, and we also proposed the potentials and issues in their implementations.
Projecting distributions of Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus) in the Southwest Atlantic using a complex integrated model
WANG Jintao, CHEN Xinjun, CHEN Yong
2018, 37(8): 31-37. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1231-3
We developed an approach that integrates generalized additive model (GAM) and neural network model (NNM) for projecting the distribution of Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argentinus). The data for this paper was based on commercial fishery data and relevant remote sensing environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) from January to June during 2003 to 2011. The GAM was used to identify the significant oceanographic variables and establish their relationships with the fishery catch per unit effort (CPUE). The NNM with the GAM identified significant variables as input vectors was used for predicting spatial distribution of CPUE. The GAM was found to explain 53.8% variances for CPUE. The spatial variables (longitude and latitude) and environmental variables (SST, SSH and Chl a) were significant. The CPUE had nonlinear relationship with SST and SSH but a linear relationship with Chl a. The NNM was found to be effective and robust in the projection with low mean square errors (MSE) and average relative variances (ARV). The integrated approach can predict the spatial distribution and explain the migration pattern of Illex argentinus in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.
Transcriptome assembly of Modiolus modiolus and comparative analysis with Bathymodiolus platifrons
MENG Jie, YANG Mei, XU Fei, LI Xinzheng, LI Li
2018, 37(8): 38-45. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1232-2
The genetic basis for bivalves' adaptation and evolution is not well understood. Even few studies have focused on the mechanism of molluscan molecular evolution between the coastal intertidal zone and deep-sea environment. In our studies, we first conducted the transcritpome assembly of Modiolus modiolus mussels living in coastal intertidal zones. Also, we conducted transcriptome comparison analyses between M. modiolus and Bathymodiolus platifrons living in hydrothermal vents and cold methane/sulfide-hydrocarbon seeps. De novo assemblies of the clean reads yielded a total of 182 476 and 156 261 transcripts with N50 values of 1 769 and 1 545 in M. modiolus and B. platifrons. A total of 27 868 and 23 588 unigenes were identified, which also displayed the similar GO representation patterns. Among the 10 245 pairs of putative orthologs, we identified 26 protein-coding genes under strong positive selection (Ka/Ks>1) and 12 genes showing moderate positive selection (0.5<Ka/Ks<1). Most of those genes are predicted to be involved in stress resistance. Overall, our study first provides the transcriptomic database for M. modiolus. Transcriptome comparison illustrates the genome evolution between M. modiolus and B. platifrons, and provides an important foundation for future studies on these two species.
Transcriptomic analysis reveals the effect of the exopolysaccharide of Psychrobacter sp. B-3 on gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cells
ZHANG Pingping, LI Jiang, YU Leiye, WEI Jingfang, XU Tong, SUN Guojie
2018, 37(8): 46-53. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1227-z
B-3 exopolysaccharide is extracted from the Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium Psychrobacter sp. B-3. We have previously shown that it activates macrophages and affects their immunoregulatory activities. To determine what genes are affected during this process, we detected the genes differentially expressed in cells of RAW264.7 macrophages treated with B-3 exopolysaccharide by transcriptomic analysis. B-3 exopolysaccharide treatment caused differential expression of 420 genes, of which 178 were up-regulated and 242 were down-regulated. These genes were shown to be involved in many aspects of cell function, mainly metabolism and immunity. Genes were enriched in multiple immune-related pathways, and the most significantly enriched genes were involved in antigen processing and presentation pathways. The pathway in which differentially expressed genes were the most significantly enriched was the metabolic pathway; specifically, the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes was altered by B-3 exopolysaccharide treatment. Additionally, the genes involved in metabolisms of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides, varied to certain degrees. B-3 exopolysaccharide, therefore, appears to directly affect the immune function of RAW264.7 macrophages as an immunostimulant, or to indirectly change intracellular metabolism. This is the first study to determine the effect of an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterial exopolysaccharide on RAW264.7 macrophages. Our findings provide an important reference for research into the regulation of macrophage immune function by different polysaccharides.
Phylogenetically diverse, acetaldehyde-degrading bacterial community in the deep sea water of the West Pacific Ocean
GAO Boliang, SHANG Xiexie, LI Li, DI Wenjie, ZENG Runying
2018, 37(8): 54-64. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1235-z
As a major aldehyde pollutant widely existing in industry and our daily life, acetaldehyde is more and more harmful to human health. As characteristic habitat niche, bacteria from deep sea environments are abundant and distinctive in heredity, physiology and ecological functions. Thus, the development of acetaldehyde-degrading bacteria from deep sea provides a new method to harness acetaldehyde pollutant. Firstly, in this study, acetaldehyde-degrading bacteria in the deep sea water of the West Pacific Ocean were enriched in situ and in the laboratory respectively, and then the diversity of uncultured bacteria was studied by using 16S rRNA genes. Then acetaldehyde-degrading strains were isolated from two samples, including enrichment in situ and enrichment in laboratory samples of deep sea water from the West Pacific Ocean using acetaldehyde as the sole carbon source, and then the ability of acetaldehyde degradation was detected. Our results showed that the main uncultured bacteria of two samples with different enrichment approaches were similar, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, but the structure of bacterial community were significant different. Four subgroups, α, γ, δ and ε, were found in Proteobacteria group. The γ-Proteobacteria was dominant (63.5% clones in laboratory enriched sample, 75% clones in situ enriched sample). The species belonged to γ-Proteobacteria and their proportion was nearly identical between the two enrichment samples, and Vibrio was the predominant genus (45% in laboratory enriched sample, 48.5% in situ enriched sample), followed by Halomonas (9% in situ enriched sample) and Streptococcus (6% in laboratory enriched sample). A total of 12 acetaldehyde-degrading strains were isolated from the two samples, which belonged to Vibrio, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas and Bacillus of γ-Proteobacteria. Strains ACH-L-5, ACH-L-8 and ACH-S-12, belonging to Vibrio and Halomonas, have strong ability of acetaldehyde degradation, which could tolerate 1.5 g/L acetaldehyde and degrade 350 mg/L acetaldehyde within 24 hours. Our results indicated that bacteria of γ-Proteobacteria may play an important role in carbon cycle of deep sea environments, especial the bacteria belonging to Vibrio and Halomonas and these strains was suggested for their potentials in government of aldehyde pollutants.
Annual pattern of zooplankton communities and their environmental response in a subtropical maritime channel system in the northern Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh
ABDULLAH Al Mamun, ALAM Md. Didarul, AKHTAR Aysha, XU Henglong, ISLAM Md. Shafiqul, MUSTAFA KAMAL Abu Hena, UDDIN M Muslem, ALAM Md. Wahidul
2018, 37(8): 65-73. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1184-6
Zooplankton plays an important role in aquatic food webs by fluxing of energy from primary producer to subsequent trophic levels in the food chain. The annual pattern of zooplankton communities and potential environmental drivers were studied in the Kohelia channel, Bangladesh from summer 2014 to spring 2015. Samples were collected using net at a depth of 1 m. A total of 32 species belonged to 18 orders, 27 families and 15 taxonomic groups were identified. Of these species, 22 distributed in all four seasons of which 8 were dominant and highly contributing to the total communities. Species number peaked in summer next to winter and fall in spring while maximum abundance was in summer and minimum in spring. Multivariate analyses showed that there was a clear annual pattern in the zooplankton communities. Species diversity and evenness peaked in spring but fall in autumn while the high value of species richness was found in winter. Biological-environmental best matching (BIO-ENV) analyses conformed that community pattern of zooplankton was mainly driven by transparency salinity, and temperature individually or combined with water nutrients. These results demonstrate that annual pattern of the zooplankton community shaped by channel environmental factors in subtropical channel ecosystems, thus might be used for community-based subtropical coastal water bioassessment.
Plankton respiration in the northern South China Sea during summer and winter
ZENG Xiangxi, HAO Qiang, ZHOU Guangdong, LE Fengfeng, LIU Chenggang, ZHOU Wenli
2018, 37(8): 74-83. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1213-5
Plankton respiration is an important part of the carbon cycle and significantly affects the balance of autotrophic assimilation and heterotrophic production in oceanic ecosystems. In the present study, respiration rates of the euphotic zone plankton community (CReu), size fractionated chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), bacterial abundance (BAC), and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) were investigated during winter and summer in the northern South China Sea (nSCS). The results show that there were obvious spatial and temporal variations in CReu in the nSCS (ranging from 0.03 to 1.10 μmol/(L·h)), CReu in winter ((0.53±0.27) μmol/(L·h)) was two times higher than that in summer ((0.26±0.20) μmol/(L·h)), and decreased gradually from the coastal zone to the open sea. The distribution of CReu was affected by coupled physical-chemical-biological processes, driven by monsoon events. The results also show that CReu was positively correlated with Chl a, BAC, and DO, and that BAC contributed the highest CReu variability. Furthermore, the results of the stepwise multiple linear regression suggest that bacteria and phytoplankton were the dominant factors in determining CReu (R2=0.82, p<0.05) in the nSCS. Based on this relationship, we estimated the integrated water column respiration rate (CRint) within 100 m of the investigated area, and found that the relationship between the biomass of the plankton community and respiration may be nonlinear in the water column.
Leaching of dissolved organic matter from seagrass leaf litter and its biogeochemical implications
LIU Songlin, JIANG Zhijian, ZHOU Chenyuan, WU Yunchao, ARBI Iman, ZHANG Jingping, HUANG Xiaoping, TREVATHAN-TACKETT Stacey M.
2018, 37(8): 84-90. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1233-1
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a significant source of nutrients that supports the microbial-based food web in seagrass ecosystems. However, there is little information on how the various fractions of DOM from seagrass leaves contributed to the coastal biogeochemical cycles. To address this gap, we carried out a 30-day laboratory chamber experiment on tropical seagrasses Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides. After 30 days of incubation, on average 22% carbon (C), 70% nitrogen (N) and 38% phosphorus (P) of these two species of seagrass leaf litter was released. The average leached dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) of these two species of seagrass leaf litter accounted for 55%, 95% and 65% of the total C, N and P lost, respectively. In the absence of microbes, about 75% of the total amount of DOC, monosaccharides (MCHO), DON and DOP were quickly released via leaching from both seagrass species in the first 9 days. Subsequently, little DOM was released during the remainder of the experiment. The leaching rates of DOC, DON and DOP were approximately 110, 40 and 0.70 μmol/(g·d). Leaching rates of DOM were attributed to the nonstructural carbohydrates and other labile organic matter within the seagrass leaf. Thalassia hemprichii leached more DOC, DOP and MCHO than E. acoroides. In contrast, E. acoroides leached higher concentrations of DON than T. hemprichii, with the overall leachate also having a higher DON:DOP ratio. These results indicate that there is an overall higher amount of DOM leachate from T. hemprichii than that of E. acoroides that is available to the seagrass ecosystem. According to the logarithmic model for DOM release and the in situ leaf litter production (the Xincun Bay, South China Sea), the seagrass leaf litter of these two seagrass species could release approximately 4×103 mol/d DOC, 1.4×103 mol/d DON and 25 mol/d DOP into the seawater. In addition to providing readily available nutrients for the microbial food web, the remaining particulate organic matter (POM) from the litter would also enter microbial remineralization processes. What is not remineralized from either DOM or POM fractions has potential to contribute to the permanent carbon stocks.
Assessment of the consecutive harmful dinoflagellate blooms during 2015 in the Izmit Bay (the Marmara Sea)
ERGÜL Halim Aytekin, AKSAN Serdar, İPŞİROĞLU Merve
2018, 37(8): 91-101. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1191-7
A series of red tides were observed during 2015 in the Izmit Bay (the Marmara Sea) which is located in the most industrialized and populated region of Turkey. Six samplings were carried out in this area following the red tides. Nitrite-N, nitrate-N, ammonia, silica and orthophosphate concentrations were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Physicochemical conditions were measured by CTD probe. Plankton quantification was performed using counting chambers under microscopes. Prorocentrum micans was the most abundant species, except on May 14, 2015, when Noctiluca scintillans was dominant. The abundance of P. micans reached average 18×106 ind./L on May 3, 2015 in the Karamürsel station, simultaneously with elevated levels of NH3 and o-PO43-. The sample was also abundant in dead amphipods ((72±12) ind./L) that had been covered by mucilage aggregates produced by P. micans. The highest biomass (calculated by carbon) was recorded as (268±26.0) mg/L on May 14 in the Hereke station. Beside the anthropogenic wastewater discharges, unknown sources and resuspensions caused increases in nutrient levels. After long term northeaster gusts (35 km/h for 5 d) an upwelling occurred on November 6, 2015 after wind-induced sediment resuspension. Although nutrient discharges remarkably decreased over 30 years through established wastewater treatment plants, harmful phytoplankton blooms still occur. Comparing the present results with other studies in nearby Mediterranean seas reveals that the most intense harmful dinoflagellate bloom in recent years occurred in the Izmit Bay. Therefore, additional protection measures necessary for a cleaner Izmit Bay. These incidents also demonstrate that contaminants, accumulated in sediment, may have long-lasting effects on enclosed marine ecosystems.
Distribution and controlling factors of phytoplankton assemblages associated with mariculture in an eutrophic enclosed bay in the East China Sea
HUO Yuanzi, WEI Zhangliang, LIU Qiao, YANG Fangfang, LONG Lijuan, ZHANG Qi, BI Hongsheng, HE Qing, HE Peimin
2018, 37(8): 102-112. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1238-9
The distribution of phytoplankton and its correlation with environmental factors were studied monthly during August 2012 to July 2013 in the Yantian Bay. A total of 147 taxa of phytoplankton were identified, and the average abundance was in the range of 0.57×104 to 7.73×104 cell/L. A total of 19 species dominated the phytoplankton assemblages, and several species that are widely reported to be responsible for microalgae blooms were the absolutely dominant species, such as Skeletonema costatum, Navicula sp., Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pleurosigma sp., and Licmophora abbreviata. The monthly variabilities in phytoplankton abundance could be explained by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and suspended solids. The results of a redundancy analysis showed that pH and nutrients, including DIN and silicate (SiO4), were the most important environmental factors controlling phytoplankton assemblages in specific months. It was found that nutrients and pH levels that were mainly influenced by mariculture played a vital role in influencing the variation of phytoplankton assemblages in the Yantian Bay. Thus, a reduction of mariculture activities would be an effective way to control microalgae blooms in an enclosed and intensively eutrophic bay.