2018 Vol. 37, No. 12

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Coastal Environment and Biodiversity in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
North-south difference of water mass properties across the Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
WANG Weibo, PAN Aijun, EDI Kusmanto, MUH Hasanudin, DENY Sutisna
2018, 37(12): 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1282-5
Two field observations were conducted around the Lembeh Strait in September 2015 and 2016, respectively. Evidences indicate that seawater around the Lembeh Strait is consisted of North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), North Pacific Tropical Intermediate Water (NPTIW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Around the Lembeh Strait, there exist some north-south differences in terms of water mass properties. NPTIW is only found in the southern Lembeh Strait. Water mass with the salinity of 34.6 is only detected at 200-240 m between NPTW and NPTIW in the southern Lembeh Strait, and results from the process of mixing between the saltier water transported from the South Pacific Ocean and the lighter water from the North Pacific Ocean and Sulawesi Sea. According to the analysis on mixing layer depth, it is indicated that there exists an onshore surface current in the northern Lembeh Strait and the surface current in the Lembeh Strait is southward. These dramatic differences of water masses demonstrate that the less water exchange has been occurred between the north and south of Lembeh Strait. In 2015, the positive wind stress curl covering the northern Lembeh Strait induces the shoaling of thermocline and deepening of NPIW, which show that the north-south difference of air-sea system is possible of inducing north-south differences of seawater properties.
Phytoplankton changes during SE monsoonal period in the Lembeh Strait of North Sulawesi, Indonesia, from 2012 to 2015
TANG Senming, RACHMAN Arief, FITRIA Nurul, THOHA Hikmah, CHEN Bin
2018, 37(12): 9-17. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1283-4
Phytoplankton species composition and abundance in the Lembeh Strait waters was studied in four cruises of April 2013, May 2014, June 2012 and October 2015, during the period of monsoon transition time of SE monsoon. With data obtained the seasonal alternations of phytoplankton community structures and its driving factors were discussed. A total of 416 taxa belonging to 5 classes of phytoplankton were recorded in the four month surveys. Phytoplankton density was averaged 2 348 cell/L and diatoms and dinoflagellates had the most diversified species. Cyanobacterium was characterized by its low species numbers but high abundance in the waters of Lembeh Strait. Total phytoplankton abundance occurred low in April and October in the monsoon transition period and it raised high in May and June during the SE monsoon. Frequently occurred species were pelagic diatoms in addition to cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Abundance and diversity of phytoplankton significantly differed seasonally. The diatoms Thalassionema and Pseudo-nitzschia, and cyanobacterium Trichodesmium contributed most to the community dissimilarities. Due to potentially higher nutrient supply in the south of Lembeh Strait, diatoms and dinoflagellates showed higher densities in the south than in the north of the strait. Though, cyanobacterium preferred distributing much evenly in all waters, it had higher density in the southern Lembeh Strait. Total phytoplankton abundance is quite low compared with the Jakarta Bay and some bays in China. Analysis showed that nutrients from upwelling forced by SE monsoon are the key factor varying the monthly phytoplankton abundances. Due to its primitive nature state, Lembeh water can be an ideal location for the study of pelagic ecosystem under merely the influence of macro environment changes with lower background noise from human activities.
Comparison of photosynthetic pigments and phytoplankton assemblages in two types of coastal regions in Southeast Asia-Indonesian Throughflow and river estuary
WANG Lei, HUANG Hao, AN Lina, THOHA Hikmah, BONG Chuiwei, XIAO Wupeng, GU Haifeng
2018, 37(12): 18-27. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1284-3
Water samples were collected in order to study the spatial variation of photosynthetic pigments and phytoplankton community composition in the Lembeh Strait (Indonesia) and the Kelantan River Estuary (Malaysia) during July and August 2016, respectively. Phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments were detected using high performance liquid chromatography combining with the CHEMTAX software to confirm the Chl a biomass and community composition. The Chl a concentration was low at surface in the Lembeh Strait, which it was 0.580-0.682 μg/L, with the average (0.620±0.039) μg/L. Nevertheless, the Chl a concentration fluctuated violently at surface in the Kelantan River Estuary, in which the biomass was 0.299-3.988 μg/L, with the average (0.922±0.992) μg/L. The biomass at bottom water was higher than at surface in the Kelantan River Estuary, in which the Chl a concentration was 0.704-2.352 μg/L, with the average (1.493±0.571) μg/L. Chl b, zeaxanthin and fucoxanthin were three most abundant pigments in the Lembeh Strait. As a consequence, phytoplankton community composition was different in the two study areas. In the Lembeh Strait, prasinophytes (26.48%±0.83%) and Synechococcus (25.73%±4.13%) occupied ~50% of the Chl a biomass, followed by diatoms (20.49%±2.34%) and haptophytes T8 (15.13%±2.42%). At surface water in the Kelantan River Estuary, diatoms (58.53%±18.44%) dominated more than half of the phytoplankton biomass, followed by Synechococcus (27.27%±14.84%) and prasinophytes (7.00%±4.39%). It showed the similar status at the bottom water in the Kelantan River Estuary, where diatoms, Synechococcus and prasinophytes contributed 64.89%±15.29%, 16.23%±9.98% and 8.91%±2.62%, respectively. The different phytoplankton community composition between the two regions implied that the bottom up control affected the phytoplankton biomass in the Lembeh Strait where the oligotrophic water derived from the West Pacific Ocean. The terrigenous nutrients supplied the diatoms growing, and pico-phytoplankton was grazed through top down control in the Kelantan River Estuary.
Community structure of zooplankton in the Lembeh Strait, Bitung, and Wori Beach, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
THOHA Hikmah, FITRIYA Nurul, SIANTURI Oksto Ridho, WANG Yanguo
2018, 37(12): 28-34. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1285-2
The community structure of zooplankton has been conducted in the Lembeh Strait in Bitung and Wori Beach in Manado, North Sulawesi in October 2015. Sampling of this research was conducted in 22 sampling sites along the strait. Zooplankton samples were collected from 22 stations, by NORPAC 300 μm net that was vertically hauled from maximum 10 m depth up to the surface water. The samples were poured into the bottle with formalin of 4% as preservative. The results showed that there were 43 taxa of zooplankton. The abundance of zooplankton was between 21.216-4 193.776 ind./m3. The dominant taxa were copepod, especially Calanoida. The composition of zooplankton was relatively similar in all stations. We showed the abundance, dominance, composition and distribution of zooplankton at this research. More extensive studies concerning zooplankton is required to understand zooplankton biodiversity as a whole especially on the geographical and spatial distribution to describe population and community dynamic in the Lembeh Strait and Wori Beach.
Zooplankton composition and distribution in the Lembeh Strait of North Sulawesi, Indonesia
WANG Yanguo, CHEN Xiaoyin, XING Bingpeng, SUN Rouxin, FITRIA Nurul, XIANG Peng, WANG Chunguang, LIN Mao
2018, 37(12): 35-44. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1286-1
Based on oceanographic survey data in June 2012 in the Lembeh Strait, the zooplankton ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual abundance, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results showed that 183 species (including 4 sp.) had been recognized, most of them belonged to copepoda. Cnidaria followed with 43 species (including 1 sp.) were identified. The average abundance of zooplankton was (150.47±58.91) ind./m3. As to the horizontal distribution, the abundance of the zooplankton was higher in the southern waters than in the northern waters. The dominant species in the study area were Lensia subtiloides, Sagitta enflata, Lucifer intermedius, Oikopleura rufescens, Diphyes chamissoni, Creseis acicula, Subeucalanus subcrassus, Temora discaudata, Aglaura hemistoma, Doliolum denticulatum, Canthocalanus pauper, Oikopleura longicauda and Nanomia bijuga. Zooplankton biodiversity indexes were higher in study area than previous study in the other regions. The findings from this study provide important baseline information for future research and monitoring programs.
Change in coral reef benthic communities in the Lembeh Strait and Likupang, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
HADI Tri Aryono, SIHOUKA Jimmy, SHI Xiaofeng, BUDIYANTO Agus, SUHARSONO null
2018, 37(12): 45-54. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1287-0
Anthropogenic impacts and natural disturbances have been intense recently in the global scale, affecting the composition of coral reef benthic communities from coral to algal dominated reefs. However, this condition does not always occur considering corals are able to recover when the stressors falter. This study aims to investigate the change in coral reef benthic communities and the relationship among benthic categories. The study was carried out in 2014 and 2016 at five sites, three sites in the Lembeh Strait and two sites in Likupang, North Sulawesi Province. Underwater Photo Transect (UPT) was used at depth of around 4-6 m in slope areas. The result indicated that the benthic communities were slightly changing: the percent covers of hard corals, sponges, soft corals, macroalgae and substrate categories were not significantly different between the years but category of others, particularly seasonally growing hydroid, increased significantly, occupying the available substrates and overtopping other benthos surrounding. The study also found that there was a significant relationship between the change in benthic gradient and the number of hard coral colonies: when the composition becomes less complex, the number of colony declines. In contrast, the hard coral diversity remained unchanged, suggesting the coral reefs apparently have an ecological resilience (sustainable species diversity) against the change although ecological complexity declines. In addition, the hard coral cover was significantly correlated with soft coral and sponge covers, which did not change significantly among the years. In general, the coral reefs in North Sulawesi might experience a temporary blip due to the increasing percent cover of others, and be predicted to recover as there was no indication of soft corals and sponges to increase significantly. However, it is necessary to investigate the dynamic of benthic communities in different depth gradients to gain a comprehensive understanding as the communities respond differently to the light intensity.
An ocean acidification-simulated system and its application in coral physiological studies
ZHENG Xinqing, WANG Chenying, HADI Tri Aryono, YE Youyin, PAN Ke
2018, 37(12): 55-62. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1223-3
Due to the elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, ocean acidification (OA) has recently emerged as a research theme in marine biology due to an expected deleterious effect of altered seawater chemistry on calcification. A system simulating future OA scenario is crucial for OA-related studies. Here, we designed an OA-simulated system (OASys) with three solenoid-controlled CO2 gas channels. The OASys can adjust the pH of the seawater by bubbling CO2 gas into seawaters via feedback systems. The OASys is very simple in structure with an integrated design and is new-user friendly with the instruction. Moreover, the OASys can monitor and record real-time pH values and can maintain pH levels within 0.02 pH unit. In a 15-d experiment, the OASys was applied to simulate OA in which the expected target pH values were 8.00, 7.80 and 7.60 to study the calcifying response of Galaxea fascicularis. The results showed daily mean seawater pH values held at pH 8.00±0.01, 7.80±0.01 and 7.61±0.01 over 15 d. Correspondingly, the coral calcification of G. fascicularis gradually decreased with reduced pH.
Temporal and spatial variation of fish community and their nursery in a tropical seagrass meadow
DU Jianguo, WANG Yanguo, PERISTIWADY Teguh, LIAO Jianji, MAKATIPU Petrus Christianus, HUWAE Ricardo, JU Peilong, LOH Kar Hoe, CHEN Bin
2018, 37(12): 63-72. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1288-z
Fish species composition and spatio-temporal variability of the community were studied in a tropical seagrass meadow located in a lagoon in the eastern part of North Sulawesi. The diversity of fish community in the seagrass meadows was relatively high, with the Shannon-Wiener index ranging from 1.57 to 3.69. The family Apogonidae was the most dominant in abundance (8.27 ind./(100 m2)) and biomass (28.49 g/(100 m2)). At the species level, Apogon lateralis and Sphaeramia orbicularis were the most dominant species in abundance and biomass, respectively. For spatial distribution on species, the end, middle and mouth of the lagoon clustered together as a whole, which may be due to the substrate types found in those zones. The fish species, fish abundance and fish biomass were greater in the dry and wet seasons than in the transition season, which is explained by the strong monsoon, which provides a more suitable environment and food for the fish. The maximum length of 93.10% of the captured species was less than their length at maturity, indicating that seagrass meadows are nursery habitats for many fishes. Therefore, protection of the seagrass meadows is essential for fisheries and sustainable resource utilization.
Plectranthias kamii Randll, 1980 (Perciformes: Serranidae) collected from Bitung, North Sulawesi: first record from the Southwest Pacific Ocean
PERISTIWADY Teguh, DU Jianguo, HUKOM Frensly Damianus, MAKATIPU Petrus Christianus, LOH Kar Hoe
2018, 37(12): 73-77. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1289-y
Three specimens of the serranid fish (Serranidae), Plectranthias kamii Randall, 1980 were collected from fish market, Bitung, North Sulawesi on May and June 2010. Some morphological characters P. kamii is closely related to P. sheni, P. megalophthalmus, P. retrofasciatus, P. rubrifasciatus, P. knappi, P. helenae, P. pelicieri, P. jothyi, P. retrofasciatus and P. randalli in sharing of body width, upper jaw length, pelvic spine length and orbit diameter. Meristic count characters of P. kamii differ from P. sheni, P. pilicieri, P. megalophthalmus, P. retrofasciatus and P. rubrifasciatus in having more numerous dorsal spine (18 vs. 15-17) and below lateral line (33-34 vs. 29-33) and differ from P. megalophthalmus and P. rubrifasciatus in having more numerous pored scales in lateral line (13 vs. 14-15) and shorter of anal spine. The present anthiine fish collected from Bitung, Indonesia was described as new record and bringing the total number of species of this genus known in Indonesia to seven.
Next-generation sequencing revealed specific microbial symbionts in Porites lutea with pigment abnormalities in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
OU Danyun, CHEN Bin, HADI Tri Aryono, SUHARSONO null, NIU Wentao, ALFIANSAH Yustian Rovi
2018, 37(12): 78-84. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1291-4
Bacterial diseases affecting corals pose an enormous threat to the health of coral reefs. The relationship between certain bacterial species and coral diseases remain largely unknown. Pigment abnormalities are common in Porites lutea. Here we used Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze the bacterial communities associated with healthy P. lutea and P. lutea with pigment abnormalities. We observed an increase of alpha diversity of the bacterial community of P. lutea with pigment abnormalities, relative to healthy corals. We then identified changes in the abundance of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between pigmented and healthy corals. We were able to identify eight OTUs associated with pigment abnormalities, which are possibly the causative agents of pigment abnormalities.
Ecosystem carbon stock of a tropical mangrove forest in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
CHEN Shunyang, CHEN Bin, SASTROSUWONDO Pramudji, DHARMAWAN I Wayan Eka, OU Danyun, YIN Xijie, YU Weiwei, CHEN Guangcheng
2018, 37(12): 85-91. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1290-5
Recent studies have highlighted the valuable role played by mangrove forests in carbon sequestration and storage. Although Indonesia accounts for a large proportion of global mangrove area, knowledge on the carbon stock and sources in the Indonesian mangrove is still limited. In this study, we quantified the ecosystem organic carbon (OC) stock and its spatial variation at an oceanic mangrove in Wori, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The sources of soil OC were also investigated. The results showed that the mangrove soil had a substantial OC stock containing 15.4 kg/m2 (calculated by carbon) in the top 50 cm soil, and represented the majority of the ecosystem OC stock at the Wori mangrove. The mangrove biomass and ecosystem OC stock were 8.3 kg/m2 and 23.7 kg/m2, respectively. There was no significantly difference in the soil OC stock among the stations with difference distances offshore, while the highest mangrove biomass OC stock was found at the seaward station. Isotope mixing calculations showed that the rich OC in mangrove soils was attributed to the accumulated autochthonous mangrove source while the suspended organic matter in tidal water and the mangrove-adjacent seagrass contributed less than 20% to the soil OC. The results further demonstrated the importances of the oceanic mangrove in carbon storage and the mangrove plants in contributing OC to their soils.
Diversity and abundance of mangrove fiddle crabs, genus Uca (Decapoda, Ocypodidae) at a mangrove in Kema, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
RIANTA Pratiwi, ERNAWATI Widyastuti, CHEN Guangcheng, CHEN Shunyang
2018, 37(12): 92-96. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1336-8
Mangrove ecosystems are sites with high biodiversity of benthic fauna, and fiddler crabs (genus Uca) are common benthic fauna in mangroves. The North Sulawesi in Indonesia has a good condition of mangrove while the information of the fiddler crabs is still limited. Manual samplings were conducted in wet, dry and transient seasons at a mangrove in Kema, North Sulawesi to investigate the species composition, density and distribution pattern of fiddler crabs. A total of 168 individuals, subjected to eight species of genus Uca crabs were collected at the mangrove, with U. triangularis having the highest abundance and U. annulipes having the lowest abundance. The densities of fiddle crabs were 27.56 ind./m2, 32.89 ind./m2 and 14.22 ind./m2 at the seaward, middle and landward zones, respectively, and the density was higher in dry and wet seasons than in transient season.
Marine Biology
Phytoplankton pigment pattern in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum in the South Java coastal upwelling system, Indonesia
GAO Chunlei, FU Mingzhu, SONG Hongjun, WANG Lei, WEI Qinsheng, SUN Ping, LIU Lin, ZHANG Xuelei
2018, 37(12): 97-106. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1342-x
Upwelling occurs on the coast of Java between June and October, forced by local alongshore winds associated with the southeasterly monsoon. This causes variations in phytoplankton community composition in the upwelling zone compared with the surrounding offshore area. Based on pigments analysis with subsequent calculations of group contributions to total chlorophyll a (Chl a) using CHEMTAX, we studied the distribution and composition of phytoplankton assemblages in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum along the south coast of Java and the influence of upwelling. Nineteen phytoplankton pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography, and CHEMTAX analysis associated these to ten major phytoplankton groups. The phytoplankton community in the coastal area influenced by upwelling was characterized by high Chl a and fucoxanthin concentrations, indicating the dominance of diatoms. In contrast, in the offshore area, the Chl a and fucoxanthin concentrations declined to very low levels and the community was dominated by haptophytes represented by 19'-Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin. Accordingly, microphytoplankton was found to be the major size class in the coastal area influenced by upwelling, while nanophytoplankton was most abundant in the offshore area. Low concentrations of other accessory pigments indicated less contribution from dinoflagellates, prasinophytes, chlorophytes and cryptophytes. Photo-pigment indices revealed that photosynthetic carotenoids (PSCs) were the largest component of the pigment pool, exceeding the proportion of Chl a, with the average PSCTP up to 0.62. These distribution trends can mainly be explained by phytoplankton adaption strategies to upwelling and subsurface conditions by changing species composition and adjusting the pigment pool.
Study of monthly variations in primary production and their relationships with environmental factors in the Daya Bay based on a general additive model
KANG Jianhua, HUANG Hao, LI Weiwen, LIN Yili, CHEN Xingqun
2018, 37(12): 107-117. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1281-6
In this study, the horizontal and vertical distribution of primary production (PP) and its monthly variations were described based on field data collected from the Daya Bay in January-December of 2016. The relationships between PP and environmental factors were analyzed using a general additive model (GAM). Significant seasonal differences were observed in the horizontal distribution of PP, while vertical distribution showed a relatively consistent unimodal pattern. The monthly average PP (calculated by carbon) ranged from 48.03 to 390.56 mg/(m2·h), with an annual average of 182.77 mg/(m2·h). The highest PP was observed in May and the lowest in November. Additionally, the overall trend in PP was spring>summer>winter>autumn, and spring PP was approximately three times that of autumn PP. GAM analysis revealed that temperature, bottom salinity, phytoplankton, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) had no significant relationships with PP, while longitude, depth, surface salinity, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparency were significantly correlated with PP. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that monsoonal changes and terrestrial and offshore water systems have crucial effects on environmental factors that are associated with PP changes.
Variation of bacterial community associated with Phaeodactylum tricornutum in response to different inorganic nitrogen concentrations
SHI Feng, WEI Xiaoxue, FENG Jianfeng, SUN Yingxue, ZHU Lin
2018, 37(12): 118-128. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1272-7
Specific bacterial communities interact with phytoplankton in laboratory algal cultures. These communities influence phytoplankton physiology and metabolism by transforming and exchanging phytoplankton-derived organic matter. Functional bacterial groups may participate in various critical nutrients fluxes within these associations, including nitrogen (N) metabolism. However, it is unclear how bacterial communities and the associated algae respond to changes of phycosphere N conditions. This response may have far-reaching implications for global nutrient cycling, algal bloom formation, and ecosystem function. Here, we identified changes in the bacterial communities associated with Phaeodactylum tricornutum when co-cultured with different forms and concentrations of N based on the Illumina HiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Phylogenetic analysis identified Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the dominant phyla, accounting for 99.5% of all sequences. Importantly, bacterial abundance and community structure were more affected by algal abundance than by the form or concentration of inorganic N. The relative abundance of three gammaproteobacterial genera (Marinobacter, Algiphilus and Methylophaga) markedly increased in N-deficient cultures. Thus, some bacterial groups may play a role in the regulation of N metabolism when co-cultured with P. tricornutum.
News and Views
International Silica Cycle Workshop held in Hangzhou
TRÉGUER Paul, RAN Lihua, CHAI Fei, CHEN Jianfang
2018, 37(12): 129-129. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1341-y