2015 Vol. 34, No. 6

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Estimation of annual variation of water vapor in the Arctic Ocean between 80°-87°N using shipborne GPS data based on kinematic precise point positioning
LUO Xiaowen, ZHANG Tao, GAO Jinyao, YANG Chunguo, WU Zaocai
2015, 34(6): 1-4. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0680-1
The measurement of atmospheric water vapor (WV) content and variability is important for meteorological and climatological research. A technique for the remote sensing of atmospheric WV content using ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) has become available, which can routinely achieve accuracies for integrated WV content of 1-2 kg/m2. Some experimental work has shown that the accuracy of WV measurements from a moving platform is comparable to that of (static) land-based receivers. Extending this technique into the marine environment on a moving platform would be greatly beneficial for many aspects of meteorological research, such as the calibration of satellite data, investigation of the air-sea interface, as well as forecasting and climatological studies. In this study, kinematic precise point positioning has been developed to investigate WV in the Arctic Ocean (80°-87°N) and annual variations are obtained for 2008 and 2012 that are identical to those related to the enhanced greenhouse effect.
Chemicohydrographic characteristics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass
XIN Ming, MA Deyi, WANG Baodong
2015, 34(6): 5-11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0681-0
Based on the field data obtained during summer cruises in 2006, the overall perspective of chemical and hydrographic characteristics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) are discussed through the cross-YSCWM transect profiles and horizontal distributions of hydrological and chemical variables, with emphasis on the differences between the northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM) and the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (SYSCWM). The results show that YSCWM is characterized by low temperature (<10℃) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, high salinity (>32.0) and nutrient concentrations. Compared to the SYSCWM, the NYSCWM possesses lower values of temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations but higher values of DO. Also its smaller variation ranges of variables (except for temperature) demonstrate that NYSCWM is more uniform than that of SYSCWM. In addition, thermocline is more intensive in the SYSCWM than that of NYSCWM. Furthermore, DO and Chl a maxima appear at the depth of 30 m in the SYSCWM, while these phenomena are not obvious in the NYSCWM.
Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea
WU Bin, SONG Jinming, LI Xuegang
2015, 34(6): 12-20. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0682-z
Distribution and chemical speciation of dissolved inorganic arsenic were examined in Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Results demonstrated that: (1) both As(III) and As(V) were detected, with As(V) dominated at 40% stations of surface water and 51% stations of bottom water; (2) influenced by the exchange of fresh and sea water, the type of surface sediment and the transport of various water masses, large values in surface water were observed along the coastal region and in the same latitude of Changjiang River Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, and in bottom water found in the southern area where the Taiwan Warm Current and Kuroshio Current influenced; (3) As(III) behaved non-conservatively in Changjiang River Estuary. Man-derived inputs cause substantial positive deviation from the theoretical dilution. The negative correlation of As(V) to salinity in surface water suggested that it behaved conservatively during the transportation along Changjiang River Estuary. While, the occurrence of As(V) up to the linear fit in bottom water indicated the eventual transfer from dissolved phase to particulate phase, which was impossible to be determined without the knowledge of arsenic level and speciation in suspended particulate matter. Further study is needed on the arsenic source/sink relationships based on the distribution profiles.
The level and bioaccumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn in benthopelagic species from the Bering Sea
SHI Ronggui, LIN Jing, YE Yi, MA Yifan, CAI Minggang
2015, 34(6): 21-25. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0683-y
The Bering Sea is an area of high biological productivity, with large populations of sea-birds, demersal and pelagic fishes, so it seemed desirable to assess the bioaccumulation of trace metals in the marine organisms from this area. However, few data on trace metal concentrations are available for the benthopelagic organisms from the Bering Sea till now. Ten specimens of benthos (including 120 biological samples) were collected in the western Bering Sea in August 2008 during the 3rd Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions, and the concentration of Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Zn, Cr and Cd concentrations in muscle tissues of the crab species were much higher than those from fish and cephalopod species, and the highest concentration of Cu was observed in the muscle tissues of Cylichna nucleoli. The results showed a similar hierarchy for Zn, Cr, Cd and Cu concentrations among different tissues as follows: hepatopancreas >muscle tissue >gonad. Bioconcentration factors indicated that benthic organisms had high accumulation abilities for Zn and Cu.
Insights into the coupling of upper ocean-benthic carbon dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean from an isotopic (13C, 234Th) perspective
ZHANG Run, CHEN Min, MA Qiang, CAO Jianping, QIU Yusheng
2015, 34(6): 26-33. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0684-x
The coupling of upper ocean-benthic carbon dynamics in the ice-free western Arctic Ocean (the Chukchi Sea and the Canada Basin) was evaluated during the late July-early September 2003 using natural stable (13C) and radioactive (238U-234Th) isotope tracers. POC export flux estimated from 234Th/238U disequilibria and dissolved CO2 concentration ([CO2(aq)]) pointed out that the strengthened biological pump in the Chukchi Shelf have significantly lowered [CO2(aq)] and altered the magnitude of isotopic (12C/13C) fractionation during carbon fixation in the surface ocean. Further, δ13C signatures of surface sediments (δ13Csed) are positively correlated to those of weighted δ13CPOC in upper ocean (δ13Csed =13.64+1.56×δ13CPOC, r2=0.73, p<0.01), suggesting that the POC isotopic signals from upper ocean have been recorded in the sediments, partly due to the rapid export of particles as evidenced by low residence times of the highly particle-reactive 234Th from the upper water column. It is suggested that there probably exists an upper ocean-benthic coupling of carbon dynamics, which likely assures the sedimentary δ13C record an indicator of paleo-CO2 in the western Arctic Ocean.
Equilibrator-based measurements of dissolved methane in the surface ocean using an integrated cavity output laser absorption spectrometer
LI Yuhong, ZHAN Liyang, ZHANG Jiexia, CHEN Liqi
2015, 34(6): 34-41. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0685-9
A new off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) is coupled to Weiss equilibrator for continuous highresolution dissolved methane measurement in the surface ocean. The time constant for the equilibrator in freshwater at room temperature is determined via dis-equilibration and re-equilibration experiments. The constant for methane is about 40 min. The system is calibrated using a standard gas of 3.980×10-6, and the precision of the ICOS for methane is 0.07%. This system is equipped onboard to measure the spatial distribution in methane concentrations of South Yellow Sea (SYS) along the cruise track from Shanghai to Qingdao. Result shows that the methane concentration varies from 2.79 to 36.36 nmol/L, reveals a significant pattern of methane source in SYS, and a distinct decreasing trend from south to north. The peak value occurs at the coast area outside mouth of the Changjiang River, likely to be affected by the Changjiang diluted water mass dissolving a large amount of rich in methane. Moreover, all the surface waters are oversaturated, air-to-sea fluxes range from 98.59 to 5 485.35 μmol/(m2·d) (average value (1 169.74±1 398.46) μmol/(m2·d)), indicating a source region for methane to the atmosphere.
Mantle melting factors and amagmatic crustal accretion of the Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean
ZHANG Tao, GAO Jinyao, CHEN Mei, YANG Chunguo, SHEN Zhongyan, ZHOU Zhiyuan, WU Zhaocai, SUN Yunfan
2015, 34(6): 42-48. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0686-8
Spreading rate is a primary factor of mantle melting and tectonic behavior of the global mid-ocean ridges. The spreading rate of the Gakkel ridge decreases gradually from west to east. However, the Gakkel ridge can be divided into four thick-and-thin zones with varying crustal thicknesses along ridge axis. This phenomenon indicates that mantle melting of the Gakkel ridge is not a simple function of spreading rate. Mantle temperature, water content, mantle composition, and other factors are important in crustal accretion processes. Based on gravity-derived crustal thickness and wet melting model, we estimate that the mantle potential temperatures of the four zones are 1 270, 1 220, 1 280, and 1 280℃ (assuming that mantle water content equals to global average value), with corresponding mantle water contents of 210, 0, 340, and 280 mg/kg (assuming that mantle potential temperature is 1 260℃), respectivly. The western thinned crust zone is best modeled with low mantle temperature, whereas the other zones are mainly controlled by the enhanced conduction caused by the slower spreading rate. Along the Gakkel ridge, the crustal thickness is consistent with rock samples types. Predominated serpentinized peridotite and basalt are found in the area with crustal thickness <1.5 km and >2.5 km, respectively. The rock samples are including from basalt to peridotite in the area with crustal thickness between 1.5 and 2.5 km. Based on this consistency, the traditional magmatic accretion zone accounted for only 44% and amagmatic accretion accounted for 29% of the Gakkel ridge. The amagmatic accretion is a significant characteristic of the ultra-slow spreading ridge.
Patterns of genetic and morphometric diversity in the marbled crab (Pachygrapsus marmoratus, Brachyura, Grapsidae) populations across the Tunisian coast
Temim Deli, Hiba Bahles, Khaled Said, Noureddine Chatti
2015, 34(6): 49-58. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0687-7
The present study reports on population structure analysis of the marbled crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787) from the Tunisian coast, an appropriate location to study biogeographical processes because of the presence of a well-known discontinuous biogeographic area (the Siculo-Tunisian Strait). Patterns of morphological and genetic variation of this highly dispersive and continuously distributed decapod species were assessed among its geographically close populations which cover almost the entire Tunisian coastline. A total of 386 specimens from nine sites were collected and examined for morphometric variability at 14 morphometric traits. The results of multivariate analyses of linear morphometric traits showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in this species by PERMANOVA (Permutational multivariate analysis of variance). In addition, both CDA (Canonical discriminant analysis) and NPMANOVA (Non parametric MANOVA test) analyses revealed statistically significant differences among the studied locations for both sexes. Overall, the outcome of CDA analysis showed that over 87% of individuals could be assigned correctly to three regional groups in both sexes (North, Center and South). Specifically, SIMPER (Similarity Percentages) analysis showed that carapace length, carapace width and merus length were major contributors to the morphometric separation between populations. The pattern of phenotypic variation suggested by morphometric analyses was found to be highly discordant with that suggested by the analysis of a mitochondrial marker (cytochrome oxidase I, COI). Indeed, the results inferred from restriction fragment analysis of the COI in 180 crabs, suggested high genetic homogeneity. Very low levels of haplotype diversity (h) were found in almost all the studied populations, associated with non significant genetic distances for nearly all population comparisons. Explanations to these morphometric and mtDNA patterns as well as the discrepancy between them are discussed.
Using microsatellite markers to identify heritability of Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
2015, 34(6): 59-65. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0688-6
Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an economically relevant shrimp species in many Asian countries. The specific objective of the current research was to assess microsatellite markers in screening the fastgrowth of domesticated L. vannamei stocks to establish a founder population for breeding-selection plans. The postlarvae produced by the reproduction of second generation broodstock were cultured in the same conditions throughout a five months growing period. Ninety juvenile shrimp were selected from the slow-, medium- and the fast-growth groups, and ten microsatellite markers were used to investigate their genetic diversity, and to understand the improvement of a breeding-selection scheme. Ten polymorphic loci (markers) (M1-M10) were produced at ten loci in this sample, among them Primer M8 was the highest polymorphic locus and M7 was the lowest one. A specific locus was found in the fast-growth group using Primer M5. The longest genetic distance (0.481) was determined between the fast- and medium-growth groups and the shortest (0.098) was between the slow- and medium-growth groups; therefore, the largest genetic identity (0.946) was observed between the slowand medium-growth groups and the smallest (0.667) was observed between the medium- and fast-growth groups. The Unweighted Paired Group with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distances provided two different groups; the first consist of the slow- and medium-growth groups and the second the fastgrowth group. Selection response and realized heritability for growth were 11.55% and 31.26%, respectively. Therefore, this set of microsatellite markers would provide a useful tool in shrimp breeding schemes.
Glycogen content relative to expression of glycogen phosphorylase (GPH) and hexokinase (HK) during the reproductive cycle in the Fujian Oyster, Crassostrea angulata
ZENG Zhen, NI Jianbin, KE Caihuan
2015, 34(6): 66-76. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0639-2
Glycogen, a polymer of glucose, is an important means of storing energy. It is degraded by glycogen phosphorylase (GPH) and hexokinase (HK), glycogen phosphorylase, and hexokinase cDNAs (Ca-GPH and Ca-HK, respectively), which encode the primary enzymes involved in glycogen use, cloned and characterized and used to investigate the regulation of glycogen metabolism at the mRNA level in Crassostrea angulata. Their expression profiles were examined in different tissues and during different reproductive stages. Full-length cDNA of GPH was 3 078 bp in length with a 2 607 bp open reading frame (ORF) predicted to encode a protein of 868 amino acids (aa). The full-length HK cDNA was 3 088 bp long, with an ORF of 1 433 bp, predicted to encode a protein of 505 aa. Expression levels of both genes were found to be significantly higher in the gonads and adductor muscle than in the mantle, gill, and visceral mass. They were especially high in the adductor muscle, which suggested that these oysters can use glycogen to produce a readily available supply of glucose to support adductor muscle activity. The regulation of both genes was also found to be correlated with glycogen content via qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization and was dependent upon the stage of the reproductive cycle (initiation, maturation, ripeness). In this way, it appears that the expression of Ca-GPH and Ca-HK is driven by the reproductive cycle of the oyster, reflecting the central role played by glycogen in energy use and gametogenic development in C. angulata. It is here suggested that Ca-GPH and Ca-HK can be used as useful molecular markers for identifying the stages of glycogen metabolism and reproduction in C. angulata.
Community structure and biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the northern South China Sea
LIU Xiaoshou, XU Man, ZHANG Jinghuai, LIU Dan, LI Xiao
2015, 34(6): 77-85. doi: 10.1007/s13131-014-0549-8
A quantitative study on the community structure and biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes and their relationship with environmental factors in the northern South China Sea were carried out based on the samples collected at five stations in the deep sea (from 313 to 1 600 m) and one station in shallow waters (87 m) during the cruise in September, 2010. Results showed that the abundance of marine nematodes ranged from 224 to 1 996 ind./(10 cm2). A total of 69 free-living marine nematode genera, belonging to 26 families and three orders, were identified. The most dominant genera were Sabatieria, Linhystera, Aegialoalaimus and Daptonema according to SIMPER analysis. Results of CLUSTER analysis revealed four types of marine nematode community (or station groups) in the sampling area. In terms of trophic structure, non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and selective deposit feeders (1A) were the dominant trophic types with highest genera numbers and abundances, which implied that organic detritus was the main food source of marine nematodes in the northern South China Sea. The percentage of male nematode was low, ranging from 2.22% to 17.81%, while those of juvenile individuals ranged from 36.99% to 82.09%. For genera level diversity of marine nematodes, Shannon-Wiener diversity indices (H') ranged from 3.76 to 4.57 and had highly significant negative correlation with water depth. In general, diversity indices H' at the five stations in deep sea (over 200 m) were lower than that at the station in shallow waters (87 m). BIOENV analysis showed that the most important environmental factor controlling marine nematode communities was water depth.
Impacts of anthropogenic activities on the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine ecosystem (1998-2012)
CHEN Dong, DAI Zhijun, XU Ren, LI Daoji, MEI Xuefei
2015, 34(6): 86-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0679-7
Estuarine ecosystem has greatly changed in the recent decades due to anthropogenic perturbations in the Changjiang Estuary. Change patterns and impact factors were analyzed based on the continuous data in relation to the Changjiang estuarine ecosystem from 1998 to 2012. The results showed significant decreases in plankton species and annual output of Coilia nasus, Coilia mystus. Furthermore, species and biomass of benthos showed abrupt change in 2003, downward before that and upward after that. It was noted that, Eriocheir sinensis, a high value commercial fish, had an annual production increase of 97%. Reduction of riverine nutrients, especially dissolved silicate (DSI) loads into the estuary could contribute to the decline in Bacillariophyta species. Dredging and dumping works of the North Passage led to the decreases in regional plankton species. However, the species reproduction and releasing projects could restore the estuarine ecosystem through increasing the output of E. sinensis, as well as species and biomass of benthos.
Inter-annual and seasonal variations in hydrological parameters and its implications on chlorophyll a distribution along the southwest coast of Bay of Bengal
Shanthi R., Poornima D., Raja K., Sarangi R. K., Saravanakumar A., Thangaradjou T.
2015, 34(6): 94-100. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0689-5
Seasonal and inter-annual variability of hydrological parameters and its impact on chlorophyll distribution was studied from January 2009 to December 2011 at four coastal stations along the southwest Bay of Bengal. Statistical analysis (principal component analysis (PCA), two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation analysis) showed the significant impact of hydrological parameters on chlorophyll distribution in the study area. The ranges of different parameters recorded were 23.8-33.8℃ (SST), 4.00-36.00 (salinity), 7.0-9.2 (pH), 4.41-8.32 mg/L (dissolved oxygen), 0.04-2.45 μmol/L (nitrite), 0.33-16.10 μmol/L (nitrate), 0.02-2.51 μmol/L (ammonia), 0.04-3.32 μmol/L (inorganic phosphate), 10.09-85.28 μmol/L (reactive silicate) and 0.04-13.8 μg/L (chlorophyll). PCA analysis carried out for different seasons found variations in the relationship between physico-chemical parameters and chlorophyll in which nitrate and chlorophyll were positively loaded at PC1 (principal component 1) during spring inter-monsoon and at PC2 (principal component 2) during other seasons. Likewise correlation analysis also showed significant positive relationship between chlorophyll and nutrients especially with nitrate (r=0.734). Distribution of hydrobiological parameters between stations and distances was significantly varying as evidenced from the ANOVA results. The study found that the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorophyll was highly dependent on the availability of nutrients especially, nitrate in the southwest Bay of Bengal coastal waters.
Satellite remote sensing of ultraviolet irradiance on the ocean surface
LI Teng, PAN Delu, BAI Yan, LI Gang, HE Xianqiang, CHEN Chen-Tung Arthur, GAO Kunshan, LIU Dong, LEI Hui
2015, 34(6): 101-112. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0690-z
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a significant influence on marine biological processes and primary productivity; however, the existing ocean color satellite sensors seldom contain UV bands. A look-up table of wavelengthintegrated UV irradiance (280-400 nm) on the sea surface is established using the coupled ocean atmosphere radiative transfer (COART) model. On the basis of the look-up table, the distributions of the UV irradiance at middle and low latitudes are inversed by using the satellite-derived atmospheric products from the Aqua satellite, including aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm, ozone content, liquid water path, and the total precipitable water. The validation results show that the mean relative difference of the 10 d rolling averaged UV irradiance between the satellite retrieval and field observations is 8.20% at the time of satellite passing and 13.95% for the daily dose of UV. The monthly-averaged UV irradiance and daily dose of UV retrieved by satellite data show a good correlation with the in situ data, with mean relative differences of 6.87% and 8.43%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis of satellite inputs is conducted. The liquid water path representing the condition of cloud has the highest effect on the retrieval of the UV irradiance, while ozone and aerosol have relatively lesser effect. The influence of the total precipitable water is not significant. On the basis of the satellite-derived UV irradiance on the sea surface, a preliminary simple estimation of ultraviolet radiation's effects on the global marine primary productivity is presented, and the results reveal that ultraviolet radiation has a non-negligible effect on the estimation of the marine primary productivity.