2018 Vol. 37, No. 5

2018, Vol. 37, No. 5 Content
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Physical Oceanography, Marine Meteorology and Marine Physics
Effects of surface waves and sea spray on air-sea fluxes during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit
HE Hailun, WU Qiaoyan, CHEN Dake, SUN Jia, LIANG Chujin, JIN Weifang, XU Yao
2018, 37(5): 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1208-2
Air-sea exchange plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of tropical cyclones (TCs). Although studies have suggested the dependence of air-sea fluxes on surface waves and sea spray, how these processes modify those fluxes under TC conditions have not been sufficiently investigated based on in-situ observations. Using continuous meteorological and surface wave data from a moored buoy in the northern South China Sea, this study examines the effects of surface waves and sea spray on air-sea fluxes during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit. The mooring was within about 40 km of the center of Hagupit. Surface waves could increase momentum flux to the ocean by about 15%, and sea spray enhanced both sensible and latent heat fluxes to the atmosphere, causing Hagupit to absorb 500 W/m2 more heat flux from the ocean. These results have powerful implications for understanding TC-ocean interaction and improving TC intensity forecasting.
A nowcasting model for the prediction of typhoon tracks based on a long short term memory neural network
GAO Song, ZHAO Peng, PAN Bin, LI Yaru, ZHOU Min, XU Jiangling, ZHONG Shan, SHI Zhenwei
2018, 37(5): 8-12. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1219-z
It is of vital importance to reduce injuries and economic losses by accurate forecasts of typhoon tracks. A huge amount of typhoon observations have been accumulated by the meteorological department, however, they are yet to be adequately utilized. It is an effective method to employ machine learning to perform forecasts. A long short term memory (LSTM) neural network is trained based on the typhoon observations during 1949-2011 in China's Mainland, combined with big data and data mining technologies, and a forecast model based on machine learning for the prediction of typhoon tracks is developed. The results show that the employed algorithm produces desirable 6-24 h nowcasting of typhoon tracks with an improved precision.
Marine Chemistry
The relationships among aerosol optical depth, ice, phytoplankton and dimethylsulfide and the implication for future climate in the Greenland Sea
QU Bo, GABRIC Albert J., ZHAO Li, SUN Wenjing, LI Hehe, GU Peijuan, JIANG Limei, ZENG Meifang
2018, 37(5): 13-21. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1210-8
The sea-to-air flux of dimethylsulphide (DMS) is one of the major sources of marine biogenic aerosol, and can have an important radiative impact on climate, especially in the Arctic Ocean. Satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) is used as a proxy for aerosol burden which is dominated by biogenic aerosol during summer and autumn. The spring sea ice melt period is a strong source of aerosol precursors in the Arctic. However, high aerosol levels in early spring are likely related to advection of continental pollution from the south (Arctic haze). Higher AOD was generally registered in the southern part of the study region. Sea ice concentration (SIC) and AOD were positively correlated, while cloud cover (CLD) and AOD were negative correlation. The seasonal peaks of SIC and CLD were both one month ahead of the peak in AOD. There is a strong positive correlation between AOD and SIC. Melting ice is positively correlated with chlorophyll a (CHL) almost through March to September, but negatively correlated with AOD in spring and early summer. Elevated spring and early summer AOD most likely were influenced by combination of melting ice and higher spring wind in the region. The peak of DMS flux occurred in spring due to the elevated spring wind and more melting ice. DMS concentration and AOD were positively correlated with melting ice from March to May. Elevated AOD in early autumn was likely related to the emission of biogenic aerosols associated with phytoplankton synthesis of DMS. The DMS flux would increase more than triple by 2100 in the Greenland Sea. The significant increase of biogenic aerosols could offset the warming in the Greenland Sea.
Assessment of the Tessier and BCR sequential extraction procedures for elemental partitioning of Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, and Ti and their application to surface sediments from Chinese continental shelf
LIU Yanli, ZHANG Jing, HE Huijun
2018, 37(5): 22-28. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1189-1
Surface sediments can integrate a wide variety of information of seawater in marginal seas, e.g., the Quaternary sedimentary shelf such as the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS). The Tessier and BCR sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) have been widely applied for extraction of various geochemical phases from sediments. To choose a suitable SEP for phase extraction of sediments from the above Quaternary sedimentary shelf, efficiency and selectivity experiments were conducted on typical individual minerals and the applicability of each SEP was assessed for natural sediments (the natural sediment standard GSD-9 and three surface sediment samples). The geochemical represented elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Al, and Ti) were measured using both SEPs. Both SEPs have good dissolution efficiency and selectivity for the targeted geochemical phases; the optimized extractant volume for each fraction was determined. The Tessier SEP is particularly recommended for the study of adsorption-desorption process. The application of the Tessier SEP to surface sediments can furnish valuable information, including the productivity conditions (via the reducible fraction Mn) and sedimentary environments (via the carbonate fraction Ca). These results confirm that the Tessier SEP is suitable for elemental fractionation in sediments from the Chinese continental shelf.
Marine Geology
Clay minerals in Arctic Kongsfjorden surface sediments and their implications on provenance and paleoenvironmental change
SHI Fengdeng, SHI Xuefa, SU Xin, FANG Xisheng, WU Yonghua, CHENG Zhenbo, YAO Zhengquan
2018, 37(5): 29-38. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1220-6
Kongsfjorden is a typical fjord on the edge of the ice cap of the Arctic Svalbard-Barents Sea. Its inner bay is connected with a modern glacier front along the direction of the fjord axis with a significant gradient change in the parameters of hydrology, sedimentation, and biology. In summer, ice and snow melt-water and floating ice collapse continuously and thus transport the weathering products on the surrounding land into the sea. Thus Kongsfjorden is regards as a natural laboratory for the study of unique sedimentation in polar fjords under modern glacial-sea water conditions. In this study, fifty-two surface sediments were collected in Kongsfjorden for clay mineral analysis to study the sediment source and sediment-transport process. Our results indicate that clay minerals in the surface sediments from Kongsfjorden are mainly composed of illite, chlorite, and kaolinite, and no smectite is found. Rocks from different periods exposed extensively in the surrounding areas of Kongsfjorden provide an important material basis for clay minerals in the Kongsfjorden. Kaolinite may be mainly derived from the fluvial deposits, weathered from reddish sandstones and conglomerates during the Carboniferous Period. Illite is mainly derived from Proterozoic low-grade and medium-grade metamorphic phyllite, mica schist, and gneiss. While chlorite is mainly from Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic phyllite and mica schist. In the direction from the fluvio-glacial estuary to the sea of the glacier front of Kongsfjorden, illite increase gradually, and the content of kaolinite declines gradually. However, the change pattern of chlorite is insignificant, which may be related to the provenance. Kongsfjorden detritus is mainly transported by the fluvio-glacial streams and icebergs into the sea and deposited in the inner bay. Coarse sediments are rapidly deposited in the glacier front, estuary, and near-shore areas. Clay fraction begins to deposit significantly by 200-400 m after flowing into the sea, which due to the crystal behavior of clay minerals, hydrodynamic condition and flocculation. Kaolinite and chlorite on the south of the bay near the Blomstrandhalvøya Island is mainly affected by ice-rafted detritus and thus can reveal the trajectory of transportation by the floating ice while entering the sea.
Time correction of the ocean bottom seismometers deployed at the southwest Indian ridge using ambient noise cross-correlation
LIU Yunlong, LIU Cai, TAO Chunhui, YAO Huajian, QIU Lei, WANG Ao, RUAN Aiguo, WANG Hanchuang, ZHOU Jianping, LI Huaiming, DONG Chuanwan
2018, 37(5): 39-46. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1209-1
Seismic monitoring using ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) is an efficient method for investigating earthquakes in mid-ocean ridge far away from land. Clock synchronization among the OBSs is difficult without direct communication because electromagnetic signals cannot propagate efficiently in water. Time correction can be estimated through global positioning system (GPS) synchronization if clock drift is linear before and after the deployment. However, some OBSs in the experiments at the southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) on the Chinese DY125-34 cruise had not been re-synchronized from GPS after recovery. So we attempted to estimate clock drift between each station pairs using time symmetry analysis (TSA) based on ambient noise cross-correlation. We tested the feasibility of the TSA method by analyzing daily noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) that extract from the data of another OBS experiment on the Chinese DY125-40 cruise with known clock drift and the same deployment site. The results suggest that the NCFs' travel time of surface wave between any two stations are symmetrical and have an opposite growing direction with the date. The influence of different band-pass filters, different components and different normalized methods was discussed. The TSA method appeared to be optimal for the hydrophone data within the period band of 2-5 s in dozens of km-scale interstation distances. A significant clock drift of~2 s was estimated between OBSs sets through linear regression during a 108-d deployment on the Chinese cruise DY125-34. Time correction of the OBS by the ambient noise cross-correlation was demonstrated as a practical approach with the appropriate parameters in case of no GPS re-synchronization.
Marine Biology
Heavy metal stress induced hyperglycemia in blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus
2018, 37(5): 47-53. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1211-7
The study was to find out the effect of cadmium and mercury on levels of hemolymph glucose, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and hepatopancreas glycogen in the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus. The experiments were performed in both intact and eyestalk ablated crabs. Quantification of CHH was done by the indirect ELISA with the aid of primary anti-Carcinus maenas-CHH antibody. Higher glucose concentration was observed on exposure to 8×10-6 of cadmium ((825.6±5.42) μg/mL) and 6×10-6 of mercury ((90.5±6.25) μg/mL) after 48 h and 24 h respectively. Higher level of hemolymph glucose was observed in eyestalk intact crabs on exposure to cadmium and mercury than eyestalk ablated crabs. Decrease in the levels of CHH was observed in both eyestalk intact and ablated crabs on heavy metal exposure. Decline of the hepatopancreas glycogen level was also witnessed with the exposure to heavy metal, which validated its utilization in the production of glucose. Thus this study brings to light, the variations in hemolymph glucose, CHH and hepatopancreas glycogen on heavy metal stress. These carbohydrate metabolites can be used as biomarkers in assessing heavy metal contamination in water bodies.
Differential gene expression in the body wall of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) under strong lighting and dark conditions
ZHANG Libin, FENG Qiming, SUN Lina, FANG Yan, XU Dongxue, ZHANG Tao, YANG Hongsheng
2018, 37(5): 54-66. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1101-4
Sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus is very sensitive to light changes. It is important to study the influence of light on the molecular response of A. japonicus. In this study, RNA-seq provided a general overview of the gene expression profiles of the body walls of A. japonicus exposed to strong light ("light"), normal light ("control") and fully dark ("dark") environment. In the comparisons of "control" vs. "dark", "control" vs. "light" and "dark" vs. "light", 1 161, 113 and 1 705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following the criteria of|log2 ratio| ≥ 1 and FDR ≤ 0.001, respectively. Gene ontology analysis showed that "cellular process" and "binding" enriched the most DEGs in the category of "biological process" and "molecular function", while "cell" and "cell part" enriched the most DEGs in the category of "cellular component". And the DEGs were mapped to 214, 41 and 229 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, and 51, 2 and 57 pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. Light-specific DEGs identified in this study will be important targets for further investigation to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the adaption of this sea cucumber to changes in the level of environmental light.
Impacts of changing scale on Getis-Ord Gi* hotspots of CPUE:a case study of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the northwest Pacific Ocean
FENG Yongjiu, CHEN Xinjun, GAO Feng, LIU Yang
2018, 37(5): 67-76. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1212-6
We examined the scale impacts on spatial hot and cold spots of CPUE for Ommastrephes bartramii in the northwest Pacific Ocean. The original fishery data were tessellated to 18 spatial scales from 5'×5' to 90'×90' with a scale interval of 5' to identify the local clusters. The changes in location, boundaries, and statistics regarding the Getis-Ord Gi* hot and cold spots in response to the spatial scales were analyzed in detail. Several statistics including Min, mean, Max, SD, CV, skewness, kurtosis, first quartile (Q1), median, third quartile (Q3), area and centroid were calculated for spatial hot and cold spots. Scaling impacts were examined for the selected statistics using linear, logarithmic, exponential, power law and polynomial functions. Clear scaling relations were identified for Max, SD and kurtosis for both hot and cold spots. For the remaining statistics, either a difference of scale impacts was found between the two clusters, or no clear scaling relation was identified. Spatial scales coarser than 30' are not recommended to identify the local spatial patterns of fisheries because the boundary and locations of hot and cold spots at a coarser scale are significantly different from those at the original scale.
Macrobenthic assemblage characteristics under stressed waters and ecological health assessment using AMBI and M-AMBI:a case study at the Xin'an River Estuary, Yantai, China
ZHOU Zhengquan, LI Xiaojing, CHEN Linlin, LI Baoquan, LIU Tiantian, AI Binghua, YANG Lufei, LIU Bo, CHEN Qiao
2018, 37(5): 77-86. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1180-x
To understand the ecological status and macrobenthic assemblages of the Xin'an River Estuary and its adjacent waters, a survey was conducted for environmental variables and macrobenthic assemblage structure in September 2012 (Yantai, China). Several methods are adopted in the data analysis process:dominance index, diversity indices, cluster analysis, non-metric multi-dimentional scaling ordination, AMBI and M-AMBI. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of six out of eight sampling stations were in a good condition with low concentration. The average value of DO ((2.89±0.60) mg/L) and pH (4.28±0.43) indicated that the research area faced with the risk of ocean acidification and underlying hypoxia. A total of 62 species were identified, of which the dominant species group was polychaetes. The average abundance and biomass was 577.50 ind./m2 and 6.01 g/m2, respectively. Compared with historical data, the macrobenthic assemblage structure at waters around the Xin'an River Estuary was in a relatively stable status from 2009 to 2012. Contaminant indicator species Capitella capitata appeared at Sta. Y1, indicating the animals here suffered from hypoxia and acidification. AMBI and M-AMBI results showed that most sampling stations were slightly disturbed, which were coincided with the abiotic measurement on evaluating the health conditions. Macrobenthic communities suffered pressures from ocean acidification and hypoxia at the research waters, particularly those at Stas Y1, Y2 and Y5, which displays negative results in benthic health evaluation.
Accelerated recruitment of copepod Calanus hyperboreus in pelagic slope waters of the western Arctic Ocean
XU Zhiqiang, ZHANG Guangtao, SUN Song
2018, 37(5): 87-95. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1166-8
Shelf-basin advection is essential to subsistence of the Arctic copepod Calanus hyperboreus population in high basin area. Its abundance, population structure and body size in pelagic layer were investigated with samples collected over a large range in the western Arctic Ocean during summer 2003, to evaluate the geographical variation in recruitment pattern. Calanus hyperboreus was absent from the shallow areas of the Chukchi Sea and most abundant in the slope area between the Chukchi Sea and Chukchi Abyssal Plain (CS-slope). Total abundance varied between 1 110.0 and 5 815.0 ind./m2 in the CS-slope area and ranged from 40.0 to 950.0 ind./m2 in the other areas. Early stages (CI-IV) dominated in the CS-slope area, whereas CV and adult females were frequently recorded only in deep basin areas. Geographical difference of prosome length was most evident in CⅢ, with average ranging from 2.48 to 2.61 mm at the CS-slope stations and 2.16-2.37 mm at the others. Abundance of early developmental stages (CI-CIV) correlated positively with Chl a concentration, but negative correlation was observed in late stages (CV-adult). Our results indicated that C. hyperboreus can benefit from primary production increase through accelerated development in the first growth season and the productive CS-slope area is a potential source for slope-basin replenishment.
Influence of the northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass on picoplankton distribution around the Zhangzi Island, northern Yellow Sea
ZHAO Li, ZHAO Yanchu, DONG Yi, ZHAO Yuan, ZHANG Wuchang, XU Jianhong, YU Ying, ZHANG Guangtao, XIAO Tian
2018, 37(5): 96-106. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1149-9
Picoplankton distribution around the Zhangzi Island (northern Yellow Sea) was investigated by monthly observation from July 2009 to June 2010. Three picoplankton populations were discriminated by flow cytometry, namely Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic prokaryotes. In summer (from July to September), the edge of the northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM) resulting from water column stratification was observed. In the NYSCWM, picoplankton (including Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic prokaryotes) distributed synchronically with extremely high abundance in the thermocline (20 m) in July and August (especially in August), whereas in the bottom zone of the NYSCWM (below 30 m), picoplankton abundance was quite low. Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic prokaryotes showed similar response to the NYSCWM, indicating they had similar regulating mechanism under the influence of NYSCWM. Whereas in the non-NYSCWM, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic prokaryotes exhibited different distribution patterns, suggesting they had different controlling mechanisms. Statistical analysis indicated that temperature, nutrients (NO3 and PO43–) and ciliate were important factors in regulating picoplankton distribution. The results in this study suggested that the physical event NYSCWM, had strong influence on picoplankton distribution around the Zhangzi Island in the northern Yellow Sea.
Integration of the nuclease protection assay with sandwich hybridization (NPA-SH) for sensitive detection of Heterocapsa triquetra
PARK Mirye, PARK So Yun, HWANG Jinik, JUNG Seung Won, LEE Juyun, CHANG Man, LEE Taek-Kyun
2018, 37(5): 107-112. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1167-7
Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that function as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Some species of microalgae undergo rapid growth and cause harmful blooms in marine ecosystems. Heterocapsa triquetra is one of the most common bloom-forming species in estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. Although this species does not produce toxins, unlike some other Heterocapsa species, the high density of its blooms can cause significant ecological damage. We developed a H. triquetra species-specific nuclease protection assay sandwich hybridization (NPA-SH) probe that targets the large subunit of ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA). We tested probe specificity and sensitivity with five other dinoflagellates that also cause red tides. Our assay detected H. triquetra at a concentration of 1.5×104 cells/mL, more sensitive than required for a red-tide guidance warning by the Korea Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries in 2015 (3.0×104 cells/mL). We also used the NPA-SH assay to monitor H. triquetra in the Tongyeong region of the southern sea area of Korea during 2014. This method could detect H. triquetra cells within 3 h. Our assay is useful for monitoring H. triquetra under field conditions.
Target-directed isolation and identification of a serum lectin from lamprey (Lampetra japonica) by chromatographys and MALDI-TOF/TOF
HAN Yinglun, GOU Meng, SONG Xiaoping, SONG Tao, SHI Biyue, PANG Yue, LI Qingwei
2018, 37(5): 113-116. doi: 10.1007/s13131-018-1175-7
A 105-kDa polymer lectin was purified from lamprey (Lampetra japonica) serum by chromatography methods including cation ion-exchange chromatography with a SP-SepharoseTM XL column and size exclusion chromatography with a Superdex 200 column. The target fractions were collected according to the direction of hemagglutinating activity. The results revealed that the active fractions could adsorb on SP-Sepharose column and showed a 280 nm UV absorbance peak corresponding to molecular weights of 105 kDa in the following size exclusion chromatography. The target fractions with hemagglutinating activity were further checked by Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Two single bands at around 105 kDa and 35 kDa were displayed by two electrophoresis methods respectively, indicating that the protein exists as a trimer in solution. After Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE, two bands were excised from the gels respectively and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF as serum lectin (gi:13094239). The lectin was able to agglutinate rabbit red blood cells (RRBCs) and sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in vitro. The lectin isolated from lamprey serum in the current study might be helpful for deeply understanding the innate immune molecules dependent immune defence in jawless vertebrates which have been proved recently that they possess a lymphocyte-based system of anticipatory immunity with variable lymphocyte receptors as mediators.