2015 Vol. 34, No. 9

2015, Vol. 34, No. 9 Content
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Correlation analysis of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation and the Indonesian Throughflow
ZHAO Yunxia, WEI Zexun, WANG Yonggang, XU Tengfei, FENG Ying
2015, 34(9): 1-11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0736-2
Based on monthly mean Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) products from 1958 to 2007, this study analyzes the seasonal and interannual variability of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcation latitude and the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) volume transport. Further, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method and lag-correlation analysis are employed to reveal the relationships between the NEC bifurcation location, NEC and ITF volume transport and ENSO events. The analysis results of the seasonal variability show that the annual mean location of NEC bifurcation in upper layer occurs at 14.33°N and ITF volume transport has a maximum value in summer, a minimum value in winter and an annual mean transport of 7.75×106 m3/s. The interannual variability analysis indicates that the variability of NEC bifurcation location can be treated as a precursor of El Niño. The correlation coefficient between the two reaches the maximum of 0.53 with a time lag of 2 months. The ITF volume transport is positively related with El Niño events with a maximum coefficient of 0.60 by 3 months. The NEC bifurcation location is positively correlated with the ITF volume transport with a correlation coefficient of 0.43.
Mesoscale surface circulation and variability of Southern Indian Ocean derived by combining satellite altimetry and drifter observations
BENNY N. Peter, SHENBAKAVALLI Ranjan, MAZLAN Hashim, MOHD Nadzri Reba, MOHD Razali Mahmud
2015, 34(9): 12-22. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0733-5
High resoultion Eulerian mean velocity field has been derived by combining the satellite tracked surface drifter data with satellite altimetry and ocean surface winds. The drifter data used in this study includes Argos and surface drifter data from Global Drifter Program. Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) weekly files with a resolution of (1/3)° in both Latitude and Longitude for the period 1993-2012 have been used. The Ekman current is computed using ocean surface mean wind fields from scatterometers onboard ERS 1/2, Quikscat and ASCAT. The derived mean velocity field exhibits the broad flow of Antarctic Circumpolar Current with speeds up to 0.6 m/s. Anomalous field is quite significant in the western part between 20° and 40°E and in the eastern part between 80°E and 100°E with velocity anomaly up to 0.3 m/s. The estimated mean flow pattern well agrees with the dynamic topography derived from in-situ observations. Also, the derived velocity field is consistent with the in-situ ADCP current measurements. Eddy kinetic energy illustrates an increasing trend during 1993-2008 and is in phase coherence with the Southern Annular Mode by three month lag. Periodic modulations are found in the eddy kinetic energy due the low frequency Antarctic Circumpolar Wave propagation.
The impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait: numerical results
ZHANG Wenzhou, ZHUANG Xuefen, CHEN Chentung Arthur, HUANG Tinghsuan
2015, 34(9): 23-34. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0720-x
Model output from a Pacific basin-wide three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model during the period of 1991 to 2008 was used to investigate the impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Based on the characteristic salinities of both Kuroshio water and the South China Sea water, a Kuroshio impact index (KII) was designed to measure the degree of impact. The KII correlates significantly with the northeast-southwest component of wind stress, but the former lags the latter by approximately two months. The correlation coefficient between them increases from 0.267 4 to 0.852 9, with a lag time increasing from 0 to 63 days. The impact of Kuroshio Water is greater in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. At the interannual time scale, El Niño and La Niña events play an important role in impacting the KII. During El Niño events, more Kuroshio water contributes to the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Conversely, during La Niña events, less Kuroshio water contributes to the source water.
Shoaling of the internal solitary waves over the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea
QIAN Hongbao, HUANG Xiaodong, TIAN Jiwei, ZHAO Wei
2015, 34(9): 35-42. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0734-4
The activities of internal solitary waves (ISWs) over the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea (SCS) are of high complexity. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal characteristics of the shoaling ISWs over the northern SCS continental shelf using the satellite images and the results of numerical simulation. The examination of the ISW signals in the satellite optical images revealed the existence of three types of ISWs in the region north to the Dongsha Island, namely, mode-1 depression ISW, mode-1 elevation ISW, and mode-2 convex ISW. The geographical distributions of these ISWs were derived from the satellite images. Numerical results exhibited the process of polarity conversion of ISWs, by which mode-1 elevation waves were transformed from the shoaling mode-1 depression waves. The mode-2 convex ISWs generally followed the mode-1 depression ISWs. The numerical results suggested that the interaction of the mode-1 depression ISWs with the up-slope topography locally generated mode-2 ISWs, and such waves of high vertical mode dissipated rapidly during the inshore propagation.
Evaluation of the simulation capability of the Wavewatch Ⅲ model for Pacific Ocean wave
BI Fan, SONG Jinbao, WU Kejian, XU Yao
2015, 34(9): 43-57. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0737-1
Wave climate analysis and other applications for the Pacific Ocean require a reliable wave hindcast. Five source and sink term packages in the Wavewatch Ⅲ model (v3.14 and v4.18) are compared and assessed in this study through comprehensive observations, including altimeter significant wave height, advanced synthetic aperture radar swell, and buoy wave parameters and spectrum. In addition to the evaluation of typically used integral parameters, the spectra partitioning method contributes to the detailed wave system and wave maturity validation. The modified performance evaluation method (PS) effectively reduces attribute numbers and facilitates the overall assessment. To avoid possible misleading results in the root mean square error-based validations, another indicator called HH (indicating the two authors) is also calculated to guarantee the consistency of the results. The widely used Tolman and Chalikov (TC) package is still generally efficient in determining the integral properties of wave spectra but is physically deficient in explaining the dissipation processes. The ST4 package performs well in overall wave parameters and significantly improves the accuracy of wave systems in the open ocean. Meanwhile, the newly published ST6 package is slightly better in determining swell energy variations. The two packages (ACC350 and BJA) obtained from Wavewatch Ⅲ v3.14 exhibit large scatters at different sea states. The three most ideal packages are further examined in terms of reproducing waveinduced momentum flux from the perspective of transport. Stokes transport analysis indicates that ST4 is the closest to the NDBC-buoy-spectrum-based transport values, and TC and ST6 tend to overestimate and underestimate the transport magnitude, respectively, in swell mixed areas. This difference must be considered, particularly in air-wave-current coupling research and upper ocean analysis. The assessment results provide guidance for the selection of ST4 for use in a background Pacific Ocean hindcast for high wave climate research and China Sea swell type analysis.
The seasonal variations in the significant wave height and sea surface wind speed of the China's seas
ZHENG Chongwei, PAN Jing, TAN Yanke, GAO Zhansheng, RUI Zhenfeng, CHEN Chaohui
2015, 34(9): 58-64. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0738-0
Long-term variations in a sea surface wind speed (WS) and a significant wave height (SWH) are associated with the global climate change, the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, and an ocean resource exploitation, and other activities. The seasonal characteristics of the long-term trends in China's seas WS and SWH are determined based on 24 a (1988-2011) cross-calibrated, multi-platform (CCMP) wind data and 24 a hindcast wave data obtained with the WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ (WW3) wave model forced by CCMP wind data. The results show the following. (1) For the past 24 a, the China's WS and SWH exhibit a significant increasing trend as a whole, of 3.38 cm/(s·a) in the WS, 1.3 cm/a in the SWH. (2) As a whole, the increasing trend of the China's seas WS and SWH is strongest in March-April-May (MAM) and December-January-February (DJF), followed by June-July-August (JJA), and smallest in September-October-November (SON). (3) The areal extent of significant increases in the WS was largest in MAM, while the area decreased in JJA and DJF; the smallest area was apparent in SON. In contrast to the WS, almost all of China's seas exhibited a significant increase in SWH in MAM and DJF; the range was slightly smaller in JJA and SON. The WS and SWH in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, the Tsushima Strait, the Taiwan Strait, the northern South China Sea, the Beibu Gulf, and the Gulf of Thailand exhibited a significant increase in all seasons. (4) The variations in China's seas SWH and WS depended on the season. The areas with a strong increase usually appeared in DJF.
The measurement of sea surface profile with X-band coherent marine radar
WANG Yunhua, LI Huimin, ZHANG Yanmin, GUO Lixin
2015, 34(9): 65-70. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0731-7
The line-of-sight velocity of scattering facets is related to the Doppler signals of X-band coherent marine radar from the oceanic surface. First, the sign Doppler Estimator is applied to estimate the Doppler shift of each radar resolution cell. And then, in terms of the Doppler shift, a retrieval algorithm extracting the vertical displacement of the sea surface has been proposed. The effects induced by radar look-direction and radar spatial resolution are both taken into account in this retrieval algorithm. The comparison between the sea surface spectrum of buoy data and the retrieved spectrum reveals that the function of the radar spatial resolution is equivalent to a low pass filter, impacting especially the spectrum of short gravity waves. The experimental data collected by McMaster IPIX radar are also used to validate the performance of the retrieval algorithm. The derived significant wave height and wave period are compared with the in situ measurements, and the agreement indicates the practicality of the retrieval technology.
The damping model for sea waves covered by oil films of a finite thickness
ZHANG Yanmin, ZHANG Jie, WANG Yunhua, MENG Junmin, ZHANG Xi
2015, 34(9): 71-77. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0729-1
In combination with a wave action balance equation, a damping model for sea waves covered by oil films of a finite thickness is proposed. The damping model is not only related to the physical parameters of the oil film, but also related to environment parameters. Meanwhile, the parametric analyses have been also conducted to understand the sensitivity of the damping model to these parameters. And numerical simulations demonstrate that a kinematic viscosity, a surface/interfacial elasticity, a thickness, and a fractional filling factor cause more significant effects on a damping ratio than the other physical parameters of the oil film. From the simulation it is also found that the influences induced by a wind speed and a wind direction are also remarkable. On the other hand, for a thick emulsified oil film, the damping effect on the radar signal induced by the reduction of an effective dielectric constant should also be taken into account. The simulated results are compared with the damping ratio evaluated by the 15 ENVISAT ASAR images acquired during the Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident.
Projection of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta's potential submerged area due to sea level rise during the 21st century based on CMIP5 simulations
XIA Jiangjiang, YAN Zhongwei, ZHOU Wen, FONG Soi Kun, LEONG Ka Cheng, TANG Iu Man, CHANG S W, LEONG W K, JIN Shaofei
2015, 34(9): 78-84. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0700-1
Projections of potential submerged area due to sea level rise are helpful for improving understanding of the influence of ongoing global warming on coastal areas. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method is used to adaptively decompose the sea level time series in order to extract the secular trend component. Then the linear relationship between the global mean sea level (GMSL) change and the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta (PRD) sea level change is calculated: an increase of 1.0 m in the GMSL corresponds to a 1.3 m (uncertainty interval from 1.25 to 1.46 m) increase in the PRD. Based on this relationship and the GMSL rise projected by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 under three greenhouse gas emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, or RCPs, from low to high emission scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5), the PRD sea level is calculated and projected for the period 2006-2100. By around the year 2050, the PRD sea level will rise 0.29 (0.21 to 0.40) m under RCP2.6, 0.31 (0.22 to 0.42) m under RCP4.5, and 0.34 (0.25 to 0.46) m under RCP8.5, respectively. By 2100, it will rise 0.59 (0.36 to 0.88) m, 0.71 (0.47 to 1.02) m, and 1.0 (0.68 to 1.41) m, respectively. In addition, considering the extreme value of relative sea level due to land subsidence (i.e., 0.20 m) and that obtained from intermonthly variability (i.e., 0.33 m), the PRD sea level will rise 1.94 m by the year 2100 under the RCP8.5 scenario with the upper uncertainty level (i.e., 1.41 m). Accordingly, the potential submerged area is 8.57×103 km2 for the PRD, about 1.3 times its present area.
A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite
YANG Tingting, CHEN Zhongbiao, HE Yijun
2015, 34(9): 85-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0735-3
This paper proposes a new method to retrieve salinity profiles from the sea surface salinity (SSS) observed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The main vertical patterns of the salinity profiles are firstly extracted from the salinity profiles measured by Argo using the empirical orthogonal function. To determine the time coefficients for each vertical pattern, two statistical models are developed. In the linear model, a transfer function is proposed to relate the SSS observed by SMOS (SMOS_SSS) with that measured by Argo, and then a linear relationship between the SMOS_SSS and the time coefficient is established. In the nonlinear model, the neural network is utilized to estimate the time coefficients from SMOS_SSS, months and positions of the salinity profiles. The two models are validated by comparing the salinity profiles retrieved from SMOS with those measured by Argo and the climatological salinities. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the linear and nonlinear model are 0.08-0.16 and 0.08-0.14 for the upper 400 m, which are 0.01-0.07 and 0.01-0.09 smaller than the RMSE of climatology. The error sources of the method are also discussed.
Causes for different spatial distributions of minimum Arctic sea-ice extent in 2007 and 2012
CUI Hongyan, QIAO Fangli, SHU Qi, SONG Yajuan, JIANG Chunfei
2015, 34(9): 94-101. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0676-x
Satellite records show the minimum Arctic sea ice extents (SIEs) were observed in the Septembers of 2007 and 2012, but the spatial distributions of sea ice concentration reduction in these two years were quite different. Atmospheric circulation pattern and the upper-ocean state in summer were investigated to explain the difference. By employing the ice-temperature and ice-specific humidity (SH) positive feedbacks in the Arctic Ocean, this paper shows that in 2007 and 2012 the higher surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) accompanied by more surface SH and higher sea surface temperature (SST), as a consequence, the strengthened poleward wind was favorable for melting summer Arctic sea ice in different regions in these two years. SAT was the dominant factor influencing the distribution of Arctic sea ice melting. The correlation coefficient is -0.84 between SAT anomalies in summer and the Arctic SIE anomalies in autumn. The increase SAT in different regions in the summers of 2007 and 2012 corresponded to a quicker melting of sea ice in the Arctic. The SLP and related wind were promoting factors connected with SAT. Strengthening poleward winds brought warm moist air to the Arctic and accelerated the melting of sea ice in different regions in the summers of 2007 and 2012. Associated with the rising air temperature, the higher surface SH and SST also played a positive role in reducing summer Arctic sea ice in different regions in these two years, which form two positive feedbacks mechanism.
A study of multiyear ice concentration retrieval algorithms using AMSR-E data
HAO Guanghua, SU Jie
2015, 34(9): 102-109. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0656-1
In recent years, the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice area (SIA) and sea ice extent (SIE), especially for the multiyear (MY) ice, has led to significant effect on climate change. The accurate retrieval of MY ice concentration retrieval is very important and challenging to understand the ongoing changes. Three MY ice concentration retrieval algorithms were systematically evaluated. A similar total ice concentration was yielded by these algorithms, while the retrieved MY sea ice concentrations differs from each other. The MY SIA derived from NASA TEAM algorithm is relatively stable. Other two algorithms created seasonal fluctuations of MY SIA, particularly in autumn and winter. In this paper, we proposed an ice concentration retrieval algorithm, which developed the NASA TEAM algorithm by adding to use AMSR-E 6.9 GHz brightness temperature data and sea ice concentration using 89.0 GHz data. Comparison with the reference MY SIA from reference MY ice, indicates that the mean difference and root mean square (rms) difference of MY SIA derived from the algorithm of this study are 0.65×106 km2 and 0.69×106 km2 during January to March, -0.06×106 km2 and 0.14×106 km2 during September to December respectively. Comparison with MY SIE obtained from weekly ice age data provided by University of Colorado show that, the mean difference and rms difference are 0.69×106 km2 and 0.84×106 km2, respectively. The developed algorithm proposed in this study has smaller difference compared with the reference MY ice and MY SIE from ice age data than the Wang's, Lomax' and NASA TEAM algorithms.
Mapping bathymetry based on waterlines observed from low altitude Helikite remote sensing platform
JO Young-Heon, SHA Jin, KWON Jae-Il, JUN Kicheon, PARK Jinku
2015, 34(9): 110-116. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0730-8
Mapping shoreline changes along coastal regions is critically important in monitoring continuously rising sea surface heights due to climate change and frequent severe storms. Thus, it is especially important if the region has very high tidal ranges over very gentle tidal flats, which is a very vulnerable region. Although the various remote sensing platforms can be used to map shoreline changes, the spatial and temporal resolutions are not enough to obtain it for a short time. Accordingly, in this study we introduce the newly developed low altitude Helikite remote sensing platform to achieve much better resolutions of shorelines and a bathymetry. The Helikite stands for Helium balloon and Kite, which is a kind of aerial platform that uses the advantages of both a Helium balloon and a kite. Field experiments were conducted in the Jaebu Island, off the coast of the west Korean Peninsula in January 29, 2011. In order to extract shorelines from the consecutive images taken by the low altitude Helikite remote sensing platform, active contours without edges (ACWE) is used. Edges or boundaries exist primarily on places between one type of objective and the other. Since the hydrodynamic pressure has an effect everywhere, the locations of the waterlines can be the isobath lines. We could map several waterlines, which would enable us to complete a local bathymetry map ranges from 35 to 60 cm depth. The error resulting from applying ACWE algorithm to the imagery to determine the waterline is approximately less than 1 m. Therefore, it is very unique way to obtain such high resolutions of bathymetry with high accuracy for the regions of extremely high tidal ranges for a short time.
Marine Geology
Mass transport deposits and processes in the north slope of the Xisha Trough, northern South China Sea
QIN Zhiliang, WU Shiguo, WANG Dawei, LI Wei, GONG Shaojun, MI Lijun, SPENCE George
2015, 34(9): 117-125. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0608-9
Triple mass-transport deposits (MTDs) with areas of 625, 494 and 902 km2, respectively, have been identified on the north slope of the Xisha Trough, northern South China Sea margin. Based on high-resolution seismic reflection data and multi-beam bathymetric data, the Quaternary MTDs are characterized by typical geometric shapes and internal structures. Results of slope analysis showed that they are developed in a steep slope ranging from 5° to 35°. The head wall scarps of the MTDs arrived to 50 km in length (from headwall to termination). Their inner structures include well developed basal shear surface, growth faults, stepping lateral scarps, erosion grooves, and frontal thrust deformation. From seismic images, the central deepwater channel system of the Xisha Trough has been filled by interbedded channel-levee deposits and thick MTDs. Therefore, we inferred that the MTDs in the deepwater channel system could be dominated by far-travelled slope failure deposits even though there are local collapses of the trough walls. And then, we drew the two-dimensional process model and threedimensional structure model diagram of the MTDs. Combined with the regional geological setting and previous studies, we discussed the trigger mechanisms of the triple MTDs.
A geomorphological response of beaches to Typhoon Meari in the eastern Shandong Peninsula in China
DING Dong, YANG Jichao, LI Guangxue, DADA Olusegun A, GONG Lixin, WANG Nan, WANG Xiangdong, ZHANG Bin
2015, 34(9): 126-135. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0644-5
Eight representative beach profiles on the eastern coast of the Shandong Peninsula are observed and measured in 2011 and 2012 to determine the coastal processes under the lower tropical wind speed condition and the beach response to and recovery from the tropical storm Meari in a rare typhoon region. The results show that it is the enhancement and directional change of cross-shore and longshore sediment transports caused by Meari that leads to the beach morphological changes, and most of the sediment transports occur during the pre-Meari landing phase. The erosional scarp formation and the berm or beach face erosion are the main geomorphological responses of the beaches to the storm. The storm characteristics are more important than the beach shapes in the storm response process of the beaches on Shandong Peninsula. The typhoon is a fortuitous strong dynamic event, and the effect on the dissipative beach is more obvious than it is on the reflective beach in the study region. Furthermore, the beach trend is the main factor that controlls the storm effect intensity, and it is also closely related to the recovery of the beach profiles.
The characteristics of consolidation settlement and its contribution to the topographical change in the northern modern Huanghe River subaqueous delta in China
LIU Jie, LI Ping, LIU Xiao, XU Yuanqin, GAO Wei
2015, 34(9): 136-142. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0732-6
The sediments of the modern Huanghe River subaqueous delta are easily to generate settlement and lead to topography change which is due to fast deposition rate, high void ratio, moisture content and compressibility. The sediment consolidation settlements and its contribution to the topography change in the northern modern Huanghe River subaqueous delta are studied based on drilling data, laboratory experiment results, and water depth measurements of different time. The results show that the final consolidation settlement of drill holes in the study area is between 1.17 and 3.21 m, and mean settlement of unit depth is between 2.30 and 5.30 cm/m based on the one-dimensional consolidation theory and Plaxis numerical model. The final consolidation settlement obtained by Plaxis numerical model is smaller than that obtained by the one-dimensional consolidation theory, and the difference is 3.4%-39.9% between the methods. The contribution of the consolidation settlement to the topographical change is at 20.2%-86.6%, and the study area can be divided into five different regions based on different contribution rates. In the erosion area, the actual erosion depth caused by hydrodynamics is lower than the changes of measured water depth, however, the actual deposition amount caused by hydrodynamics is much larger than the changes of water depth obtained by measured data in the equilibrium and deposition areas.
Ocean Engineering
Exploitable wave energy assessment based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data—A case study in the East China Sea and the South China Sea
WAN Yong, ZHANG Jie, MENG Junmin, WANG Jing
2015, 34(9): 143-155. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0641-8
Wave energy resources assessment is a very important process before the exploitation and utilization of the wave energy. At present, the existing wave energy assessment is focused on theoretical wave energy conditions for interesting areas. While the evaluation for exploitable wave energy conditions is scarcely ever performed. Generally speaking, the wave energy are non-exploitable under a high sea state and a lower sea state which must be ignored when assessing wave energy. Aiming at this situation, a case study of the East China Sea and the South China Sea is performed. First, a division basis between the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy is studied. Next, based on recent 20 a ERA-Interim wave field data, some indexes including the spatial and temporal distribution of wave power density, a wave energy exploitable ratio, a wave energy level, a wave energy stability, a total wave energy density, the seasonal variation of the total wave energy and a high sea condition frequency are calculated. And then the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy are compared each other; the distributions of the exploitable wave energy are assessed and a regional division for exploitable wave energy resources is carried out; the influence of the high sea state is evaluated. The results show that considering collapsing force of the high sea state and the utilization efficiency for wave energy, it is determined that the energy by wave with a significant wave height being not less 1 m or not greater than 4 m is the exploitable wave energy. Compared with the theoretical wave energy, the average wave power density, energy level, total wave energy density and total wave energy of the exploitable wave energy decrease obviously and the stability enhances somewhat. Pronounced differences between the theoretical wave energy and the exploitable wave energy are present. In the East China Sea and the South China Sea, the areas of an abundant and stable exploitable wave energy are primarily located in the north-central part of the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, east of Taiwan, China and north of Ryukyu Islands; annual average exploitable wave power density values in these areas are approximately 10-15 kW/m; the exploitable coefficient of variation (COV) and seasonal variation (SV) values in these areas are less than 1.2 and 1, respectively. Some coastal areas of the Beibu Gulf, the Changjiang Estuary, the Hangzhou Bay and the Zhujiang Estuary are the poor areas of the wave energy. The areas of the high wave energy exploitable ratio is primarily in nearshore waters. The influence of the high sea state for the wave energy in nearshore waters is less than that in offshore waters. In the areas of the abundant wave energy, the influence of the high sea state for the wave energy is prominent and the utilization of wave energy is relatively difficult. The developed evaluation method may give some references for an exploitable wave energy assessment and is valuable for practical applications.