Volume 41 Issue 6
Jun.  2022
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Jihong Zhang, Wenguang Wu, Yuchen Li, Yi Liu, Xinmeng Wang. Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2022, 41(6): 4-11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1909-9
Citation: Jihong Zhang, Wenguang Wu, Yuchen Li, Yi Liu, Xinmeng Wang. Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2022, 41(6): 4-11. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1909-9

Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1909-9
Funds:  The National Key R&D Program of China under contract No. 2020YFA0607603; the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. XDA23050402; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41776155 and U1906216; the Marine S&T Fund of Shandong Province for Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) under contract No. 2018SDKJ0501-3.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: zhangjh@ysfri.ac.cn
  • Received Date: 2021-07-13
  • Accepted Date: 2021-08-30
  • Available Online: 2022-03-16
  • Publish Date: 2022-06-16
  • Eutrophication in coastal area has become more and more serious and mariculture potential is a main cause. Although there are some quantitative research on nutrient loads in national and global perspective, the calculation method problems make the results controversial. In this paper, the farming activities are divided into fed culture types (include cage culture and pond culture) and extractive culture types (e.g. seaweed, filter-feeding shellfish culture). Based on the annual yield of China in 2019 and feed coefficient of fed culture types and carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of extractive culture types, the annual nutrient loads was estimated. The results showed that to coastal region of China (1) annual nutrient released by fed culture types were about 58 451 t of N, 9 081 t of P, and annual nutrient removed by harvest of extractive culture types were 109 245 t of N, 11 980 t of P and 1.86×106 t of C. Overall, the net amount of nutrient removed annually by mariculture industry were 50 794 t of N and 2 901 t of P. (2) The nutrient released from mariculture industry influenced nutrient stoichiometry. Pond farming and seaweed farming had the potential of increasing the molar concentration ratio of N and P (N:P), while cage farming and bivalve farming decreased the N:P. (3) Due to different mariculture types and layouts in the coastal regions in China, N and P loading were regional different. Among the coastal regions in China, net release of nutrient from mariculture occurred only in Hainan and Guangxi regions, while in the other regions, N and P were completely removed by harvest. We suggest decrease the amount of fed culture types and increase the amount of integrated culture with extractive culture types. This study will help to adjust mariculture structure and layout at the national level to reduce the environmental impact.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Soto D, Brummett R. 2017. Aquaculture zoning, site selection and area management under the ecosystem approach to aquaculture. A handbook. Rome: FAO, and World Bank Group, 62–395
    Bambaranda B V A S M, Tsusaka T W, Chirapart A, et al. 2019. Capacity of Caulerpa lentillifera in the removal of fish culture effluent in a recirculating aquaculture system. Processes, 7(7): 440. doi: 10.3390/pr7070440
    Bannister R J, Johnsen I A, Hansen P K, et al. 2016. Near- and far-field dispersal modelling of organic waste from Atlantic salmon aquaculture in fjord systems. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 73(9): 2408–2419. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsw027
    Bouwman A F, Beusen A H W, Overbeek C C, et al. 2013. Hindcasts and future projections of global inland and coastal nitrogen and phosphorus loads due to finfish aquaculture. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 21(2): 112–156. doi: 10.1080/10641262.2013.790340
    Boyd C E. 2003. Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at the farm-level. Aquaculture, 226(1–4): 101–112. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00471-X
    Brigolin D, Dal Maschio G, Rampazzo F, et al. 2009. An individual-based population dynamic model for estimating biomass yield and nutrient fluxes through an off-shore mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) farm. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 82(3): 365–376,
    Cai Huiwen, Sun Yinglan. 2007. Management of marine cage aquaculture environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate. Environment Pollution Research, 14(7): 463–469
    Cao Ling, Wang Weimin, Yang Yi, et al. 2007. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research-International, 14(7): 452–462. doi: 10.1065/espr2007.05.426
    Carballeira C, Cebro A, Villares R, et al. 2018. Assessing changes in the toxicity of effluents from intensive marine fish farms over time by using a battery of bioassays. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(13): 12739–12748. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-1403-x
    Chen Chao, Lou Yongjiang, Chen Xiaofang. 2013. Study on technology of freshness-keeping of Porphyra haitanensis. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 34(13): 309–312. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2013.13.070
    Chen Yibo, Song Guobao, Zhao Wenxing, et al. 2016. Estimating pollutant loadings from mariculture in China. Marine Environmental Science, 35(1): 1–6,12. doi: 10.13634/j.cnki.mes.2016.01.001
    Christensen P B, Glud R N, Dalsgaard T, et al. 2003. Impacts of longline mussel farming on oxygen and nitrogen dynamics and biological communities of coastal sediments. Aquaculture, 218(1-4): 567–588. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00587-2
    Dame R F. 1996. Ecology of Marine Bivalves: An Ecosystem Approach. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1–272. doi: 10.1201/9781003040880
    Dempster T, Sanchez-Jerez P, Fernandez-Jover D, et al. 2011. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish. PLoS ONE, 6(1): e15646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015646
    Dumbauld B R, Ruesink J L, Rumrill S S. 2009. The ecological role of bivalve shellfish aquaculture in the estuarine environment: A review with application to oyster and clam culture in West Coast (USA) estuaries. Aquaculture, 290: 196–233
    FAO. 2020. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome: FAO, 37–128
    Farmaki E G, Thomaidis N S, Pasias I N, et al. 2014. Environmental impact of intensive aquaculture: investigation on the accumulation of metals and nutrients in marine sediments of Greece. Science of the Total Environment, 485–486: 554–562,
    Ferreira J G, Saurel C, Silva J D L E, et al. 2014. Modelling of interactions between inshore and offshore aquaculture. Aquaculture, 426–427: 154–164,
    Filgueira R, Guyondet T, Reid G K, et al. 2017. Vertical particle fluxes dominate integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) sites: implications for shellfish-finfish synergy. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 9: 127–143. doi: 10.3354/aei00218
    Gallardi D. 2014. Effects of bivalve aquaculture on the environment and their possible mitigation: a review. Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal, 5(3): 1000105. doi: 10.4172/2150-3508.1000105
    Grant J, Hatcher A, Scott D B, et al. 1995. A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating impacts of shellfish aquaculture on benthic communities. Estuaries, 18(1): 124–144. doi: 10.2307/1352288
    Holmer M. 2010. Environmental issues of fish farming in offshore waters: perspectives, concerns and research needs. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 1(1): 57–70. doi: 10.3354/aei00007
    Islam M S. 2005. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget in coastal and marine cage aquaculture and impacts of effluent loading on ecosystem: review and analysis towards model development. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(1): 48–61. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.08.008
    Joesting H M, Blaylock R, Biber P, et al. 2016. The use of marine aquaculture solid waste for nursery production of the salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus. Aquaculture Reports, 3: 108–114. doi: 10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.01.004
    Liu Chunxiang, Zou Dinghui, Liu Zhiwei, et al. 2020. Ocean warming alters the responses to eutrophication in a commercially farmed seaweed, Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis. Hydrobiologia, 847(3): 879–893. doi: 10.1007/s10750-019-04148-2
    Meier H E M, Eilola K, Almroth-Rosell E, et al. 2019. Correction to: disentangling the impact of nutrient load and climate changes on Baltic Sea hypoxia and eutrophication since 1850. Climate Dynamics, 53(1−2): 1167–1169. doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4483-x
    National Pollution Source Census. 2009. The first National Pollution Source Census: Manual of Producing and Blowdown Coefficient of Aquaculture Pollutants (in Chinese). Beijing: The Calculation Project Team of Producing and Blowdown Coefficient of Aquaculture Pollutants for the First National Pollution Source Census, 1–100
    Newell R I E. 2004. Ecosystem influences of natural and cultivated populations of suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs: a review. Journal of Shellfish Research, 23(1): 51–61
    Nichols C R, Zinnert J, Young D R. 2019. Degradation of coastal ecosystems: causes, impacts and mitigation efforts. In: Wright L D, Nichols C R, eds. Tomorrow’s Coasts: Complex and Impermanent. Cham: Springer, 119–136. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-75453-6_8
    Nixon S W, Ammerman J W, Atkinson L P, et al. 1996. The fate of nitrogen and phosphorus at the land-sea margin of the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeochemistry, 35(1): 141–180. doi: 10.1007/BF02179826
    Oh E S, Edgar G J, Kirkpatrick J B, et al. 2015. Broad-scale impacts of salmon farms on temperate macroalgal assemblages on rocky reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 98(1–2): 201–209. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.06.049
    Petersen J K, Saurel C, Nielsen P, et al. 2016. The use of shellfish for eutrophication control. Aquaculture International, 24(3): 857−878
    Price C, Black K D, Hargrave B T, et al. 2015. Marine cage culture and the environment: effects on water quality and primary production. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 6(2): 151–174. doi: 10.3354/aei00122
    Richard M, Archambault P, Thouzeau G, et al. 2007. Influence of suspended scallop cages and mussel lines on pelagic and benthic biogeochemical fluxes in Havre-aux-Maisons Lagoon, Îles-de-la-Madeleine (Quebec, Canada). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 64(11): 1491–1505. doi: 10.1139/f07-116
    Sarà G, Lo Martire M, Sanfilippo M, et al. 2011. Impacts of marine aquaculture at large spatial scales: evidences from N and P catchment loading and phytoplankton biomass. Marine Environmental Research, 71(5): 317–324. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2011.02.007
    Shen Gongming, Huang Ying, Mu Xiyan, et al. 2018. Aquaculture pollution discharge measurement and status analysis based on statistical yield. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 34(2): 123–129
    Sun Ke, Zhang Jihong, Lin Fan, et al. 2021. Evaluating the growth potential of a typical bivalve-seaweed integrated mariculture system—a numerical study of Sungo Bay, China. Aquaculture, 532: 736037. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.736037
    Tang Qisheng, Han Dong, Mao Yuze, et al. 2016. Species composition, non-fed rate and trophic level of Chinese aquaculture. Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 23(4): 729–758. doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1118.2016.16113
    Tang Qisheng, Zhang Jihong, Fang Jianguang. 2011. Shellfish and seaweed mariculture increase atmospheric CO2 absorption by coastal ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 424: 97–104. doi: 10.3354/meps08979
    Wang Junjie, Beusen A H W, Liu Xiaochen, et al. 2020. Aquaculture production is a large, spatially concentrated source of nutrients in Chinese freshwater and coastal seas. Environmental Science & Technology, 54(3): 1464–1474. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b03340
    Wang Xinxin, Olsen L M, Reitan K I, et al. 2012. Discharge of nutrient wastes from salmon farms: environmental effects, and potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 2(3): 267–283. doi: 10.3354/aei00044
    Wu R S S. 1995. The environmental impact of marine fish culture: Towards a sustainable future. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(4−12): 159–166. doi: 10.1016/0025-326X(95)00100-2
    Xiao Xi, Agusti S, Lin Fang, et al. 2017. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture. Scientific Reports, 7(1): 46613. doi: 10.1038/srep46613
    Yang Yufeng, Fei Xiugeng. 2003. Prospects for bioremediation of cultivation of large-sized seaweed in eutrophic mariculture areas. Journal of Ocean University of Qingdao, 33(1): 53–57
    Yang Ping, Lai D Y F, Jin Baoshi, et al. 2017. Dynamics of dissolved nutrients in the aquaculture shrimp ponds of the Min River estuary, China: Concentrations, fluxes and environmental loads. Science of the Total Environment, 603–604: 256–267,
    Zhang Ying, Bleeker A, Liu Junguo. 2015. Nutrient discharge from China’s aquaculture industry and associated environmental impacts. Environmental Research Letters, 10(4): 045002. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/4/045002
    Zhang Xianliang, Cui Lifeng, Li Shumin, et al. 2020a. China Fishery Statistical Yearbook (in Chinese). Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 15−38
    Zhang Jihong, Hansen P K, Wu Wenguang, et al. 2020b. Sediment-focused environmental impact of long-term large-scale marine bivalve and seaweed farming in Sungo Bay, China. Aquaculture, 528: 735561. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735561
    Zhang Yuzhen, Hong Huasheng, Chen Nengwang, et al. 2003. Discussion on estimating nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads in aquaculture. Jourmal of Xiamen University: Natural Science (in Chinese), 42(2): 223−248
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(3)  / Tables(5)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (151) PDF downloads(18) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint