Volume 40 Issue 5
May  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Zhiyuan Li, Saihua Huang, Xiaohua Zhu, Zhilin Sun, Yu Long, Huawei Xie. Short-term offshore extension of Brahmaputra-Ganges and Irrawaddy freshwater plumes to the central northern Bay of Bengal based on in situ and satellite observations[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2021, 40(5): 80-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1729-y
Citation: Zhiyuan Li, Saihua Huang, Xiaohua Zhu, Zhilin Sun, Yu Long, Huawei Xie. Short-term offshore extension of Brahmaputra-Ganges and Irrawaddy freshwater plumes to the central northern Bay of Bengal based on in situ and satellite observations[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2021, 40(5): 80-93. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1729-y

Short-term offshore extension of Brahmaputra-Ganges and Irrawaddy freshwater plumes to the central northern Bay of Bengal based on in situ and satellite observations

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1729-y
Funds:  The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41920104006 and 41776107; the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 91647209; the Key Special Program on the Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province under contract No. 2015C03015; the Scientific Research Fund of SIO under contract Nos JZ2001 and JT1801; the Scientific Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, SIO under contract No. SOEDZZ2106; the Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR under contract No. QNHX2114.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: xhzhu@sio.org.cn
  • Received Date: 2020-04-02
  • Accepted Date: 2020-07-03
  • Available Online: 2021-04-28
  • Publish Date: 2021-05-01
  • In this study, the short-term offshore extension of Brahmaputra-Ganges (BG) and Irrawaddy freshwater plumes to the central northern Bay of Bengal (BoB) was investigated based on in situ and satellite observations. In the summer and winter of 2015, two significant freshening events with periods of weeks were observed from a moored buoy at 15°N, 90°E in the BoB. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite sea surface salinity compares well with the in situ data and shows that these freshening events are directly related to the short-term offshore extension of the BG and Irrawaddy freshwater, respectively. These data combined with the altimeter sea level anomaly data show that the offshore extending plumes result from freshwater modulated by eddies. During summer, the BG freshwater is modulated by a combination of three closely located eddies: a large anticyclonic eddy (ACE) off the northwestern BoB coast and two cyclonic eddies in the northern BoB. Consequently, the freshwater extends offshore from the river mouth and forms a long and narrow tongue-shaped plume extending southwestward to the central BoB. During winter, the Irrawaddy freshwater is modulated by two continuous ACEs evolved from Rossby wave propagating westward from the Irrawaddy Delta off Myanmar, forming a tongue-shaped plume extending to the central BoB. Strong salinity fronts are formed along the boundaries of these tongue-shaped plumes. These findings confirm good capability of the SMAP data to investigate the short-term offshore extension of the BG and Irrawaddy freshwater. This study provides direct evidences of the pathways of the offshore extension of the BG and Irrawaddy freshwater and highlights the role of eddies in the northern BoB freshwater plume variability.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Akhil V P, Durand F, Lengaigne M, et al. 2014. A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(6): 3926–3947. doi: 10.1002/2013JC009632
    [2]
    Akhil V P, Lengaigne M, Vialard J, et al. 2016. A modeling study of processes controlling the Bay of Bengal sea surface salinity interannual variability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121(12): 8471–8495. doi: 10.1002/2016JC011662
    [3]
    Arunraj K S, Jena B K, Suseentharan V, et al. 2018. Variability in eddy distribution associated with East India Coastal Current from high-frequency radar observations along southeast coast of India. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(12): 9101–9118. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014041
    [4]
    Ashin K, Girishkumar M S, Suprit K, et al. 2019. Observed upper ocean seasonal and intraseasonal variability in the Andaman Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(10): 6760–6786. doi: 10.1029/2019JC014938
    [5]
    Babu M T, Kumar P S, Rao D P. 1991. A subsurface cyclonic eddy in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Marine Research, 49(3): 403–410. doi: 10.1357/002224091784995846
    [6]
    Babu M T, Sarma Y V B, Murty V S N, et al. 2003. On the circulation in the Bay of Bengal during northern spring inter-monsoon (March–April 1987). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 50(5): 855–865. doi: 10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00609-4
    [7]
    Bao Senliang, Wang Huizan, Zhang Ren, et al. 2019. Comparison of satellite–derived sea surface salinity products from SMOS, Aquarius, and SMAP. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(3): 1932–1944. doi: 10.1029/2019JC014937
    [8]
    Benshila R, Durand F, Masson S, et al. 2014. The upper Bay of Bengal salinity structure in a high-resolution model. Ocean Modelling, 74: 36–52. doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.12.001
    [9]
    Bonjean F, Lagerloef G S E. 2002. Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 32(10): 2938–2954. doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2002)032<2938:DMAAOT>2.0.CO;2
    [10]
    Chaitanya A V S, Lengaigne M, Vialard J, et al. 2014. Salinity measurements collected by fishermen reveal a “river in the sea” flowing along the Eastern Coast of India. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(12): 1897–1908. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00243.1
    [11]
    Chatterjee A, Shankar D, Shenoi S S C, et al. 2012. A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the north Indian Ocean. Journal of Earth System Science, 121(3): 559–593. doi: 10.1007/s12040-012-0191-9
    [12]
    Chen Gengxin, Han Weiqing, Li Yuanlong, et al. 2017. Strong intraseasonal variability of meridional currents near 5°N in the Eastern Indian Ocean: Characteristics and causes. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 47(5): 979–998. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-16-0250.1
    [13]
    Chen Gengxin, Li Yuanlong, Xie Qiang, et al. 2018. Origins of eddy kinetic energy in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(3): 2097–2115. doi: 10.1002/2017JC013455
    [14]
    Chen Gengxin, Wang Dongxiao, Hou Yijun. 2012. The features and interannual variability mechanism of mesoscale eddies in the Bay of Bengal. Continental Shelf Research, 47: 178–185. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2012.07.011
    [15]
    Cheng Xuhua, McCreary J P, Qiu Bo, et al. 2017. Intraseasonal-to-semiannual variability of sea-surface height in the astern, equatorial Indian Ocean and southern Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(5): 4051–4067. doi: 10.1002/2016JC012662
    [16]
    Cheng Xuhua, McCreary J P, Qiu Bo, et al. 2018. Dynamics of eddy generation in the central Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(9): 6861–6875. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014100
    [17]
    Cheng Xuhua, Xie Shangping, McCreary J P, et al. 2013. Intraseasonal variability of sea surface height in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118(2): 816–830. doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20075
    [18]
    da Silva C E, Castelao R M. 2018. Mississippi River plume variability in the Gulf of Mexico from SMAP and MODIS-Aqua observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(9): 6620–6638. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014159
    [19]
    Dai Aiguo, Qian Taotao, Trenberth K E, et al. 2009. Changes in continental freshwater discharge from 1948 to 2004. Journal of Climate, 22(10): 2773–2792. doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2592.1
    [20]
    Das B K, Anandh T S, Kuttippurath J, et al. 2019. Characteristics of the discontinuity of western boundary current in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(7): 4464–4479. doi: 10.1029/2019JC015235
    [21]
    Du Yan, Xie Shangping, Huang Gang, et al. 2009. Role of air-sea interaction in the long persistence of El Niño-induced North Indian Ocean warming. Journal of Climate, 22(8): 2023–2038. doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI2590.1
    [22]
    Felton C S, Subrahmanyam B, Murty V S N, et al. 2014. Estimation of the barrier layer thickness in the Indian Ocean using Aquarius Salinity. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(7): 4200–4213. doi: 10.1002/2013JC009759
    [23]
    Fore A G, Yueh S H, Tang Wenqing, et al. 2016. Combined active/passive retrievals of ocean vector wind and sea surface salinity with SMAP. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience & Remote Sensing, 54(12): 7396–7404
    [24]
    Fournier S, Reager J T, Lee T, et al. 2016. SMAP observes flooding from land to sea: The Texas event of 2015. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(19): 10338–10346. doi: 10.1002/2016GL070821
    [25]
    Fournier S, Vialard J, Lengaigne M, et al. 2017. Modulation of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river plume by the Indian Ocean dipole and eddies inferred from satellite observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(12): 9591–9604. doi: 10.1002/2017JC013333
    [26]
    Girishkumar M S, Joseph J, Thangaprakash V P, et al. 2017. Mixed layer temperature budget for the northward propagating Summer Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillation (MISO) in the Central Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(11): 8841–8854. doi: 10.1002/2017JC013073
    [27]
    Hackert E C, Kovach R M, Busalacchi A J, et al. 2019. Impact of Aquarius and SMAP satellite sea surface salinity observations on coupled El Niño/Southern Oscillation forecasts. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(7): 4546–4556. doi: 10.1029/2019JC015130
    [28]
    Han Weiqing, McCreary J P Jr. 2001. Modeling salinity distributions in the Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(C1): 859–877. doi: 10.1029/2000JC000316
    [29]
    Han Weiqing, McCreary J P Jr, Kohler K E. 2001. Influence of precipitation minus evaporation and Bay of Bengal rivers on dynamics, thermodynamics, and mixed layer physics in the upper Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(C4): 6895–6916. doi: 10.1029/2000JC000403
    [30]
    Hosoda S, Ohira T, Nakamura T. 2008. A monthly mean dataset of global oceanic temperature and salinity derived from Argo float observations. JAMSTEC Report of Research and Development, 8: 47–59. doi: 10.5918/jamstecr.8.47
    [31]
    Kara A B, Rochford P A, Hurlburt H E. 2000. An optimal definition for ocean mixed layer depth. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(C7): 16803–16821. doi: 10.1029/2000JC900072
    [32]
    Kumar P S, Nuncio M, Ramaiah N, et al. 2007. Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 54(9): 1619–1640. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2007.06.002
    [33]
    Le Vine D M, Dinnat E P, Meissner T, et al. 2018. Status of Aquarius and salinity continuity. Remote Sensing, 10(10): 1585. doi: 10.3390/rs10101585
    [34]
    Li Yuanlong, Han Weiqing, Ravichandran M, et al. 2017a. Bay of Bengal salinity stratification and Indian summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation: 1. Intraseasonal variability and causes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(5): 4291–4311. doi: 10.1002/2017JC012691
    [35]
    Li Yuanlong, Han Weiqing, Wang Wanqiu, et al. 2016. Intraseasonal variability of SST and precipitation in the Arabian Sea during the Indian summer monsoon: Impact of ocean mixed layer depth. Journal of Climate, 29(21): 7889–7910. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0238.1
    [36]
    Li Yuanlong, Han Weiqing, Wang Wanqiu, et al. 2017b. Bay of Bengal salinity stratification and Indian summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation: 2. Impact on SST and convection. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(5): 4312–4328. doi: 10.1002/2017JC012692
    [37]
    Li Yuanlong, Han Weiqing, Wang Wanqiu, et al. 2018. The Indian summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillations in CFSv2 forecasts: Biases and importance of improving air-sea interaction processes. Journal of Climate, 31(14): 5351–5370. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0623.1
    [38]
    Liu Yanliang, Li Kuiping, Ning Chunlin, et al. 2018. Observed seasonal variations of the upper ocean structure and air-sea interactions in the Andaman Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(2): 922–938. doi: 10.1002/2017JC013367
    [39]
    Liu Lin, Yu Weidong, Li T. 2011. Dynamic and thermodynamic air-sea coupling associated with the Indian Ocean dipole diagnosed from 23 WCRP CMIP3 models. Journal of Climate, 24(18): 4941–4958. doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4041.1
    [40]
    McCreary J P Jr, Kundu P K, Molinari R L. 1993. A numerical investigation of dynamics, thermodynamics and mixed-layer processes in the Indian Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, 31(3): 181–244. doi: 10.1016/0079-6611(93)90002-U
    [41]
    McPhaden M J, Meyers G, Ando K, et al. 2009. RAMA: The research moored array for African-Asian-Australian monsoon analysis and prediction. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(4): 459–480. doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2608.1
    [42]
    Melnichenko O, Hacker P, Maximenko N, et al. 2014. Spatial optimal interpolation of Aquarius sea surface salinity: algorithms and implementation in the North Atlantic. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 31(7): 1583–1600. doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00241.1
    [43]
    Murty V S N, Sarma Y V B, Rao D P, et al. 1992. Water characteristics, mixing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon. Journal of Marine Research, 50(2): 207–228. doi: 10.1357/002224092784797700
    [44]
    Papa F, Bala S K, Pandey R K, et al. 2012. Ganga-Brahmaputra river discharge from Jason-2 radar altimetry: An update to the long-term satellite-derived estimates of continental freshwater forcing flux into the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117: C11021
    [45]
    Papa F, Durand F, Rossow W B, et al. 2010. Satellite altimeter-derived monthly discharge of the Ganga-Brahmaputra River and its seasonal to interannual variations from 1993 to 2008. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115: C12013. doi: 10.1029/2009JC006075
    [46]
    Parampil S R, Gera A, Ravichandran M, et al. 2010. Intraseasonal response of mixed layer temperature and salinity in the Bay of Bengal to heat and freshwater flux. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115: C05002
    [47]
    Qiu Yun, Cai Wenjun, Li Li, et al. 2012. Argo profiles variability of barrier layer in the tropical Indian Ocean and its relationship with the Indian Ocean Dipole. Geophysical Research Letter, 39: L08605
    [48]
    Rao R R, Kumar M S G, Ravichandran M, et al. 2010. Interannual variability of Kelvin wave propagation in the wave guides of the equatorial Indian Ocean, the coastal Bay of Bengal and the southeastern Arabian Sea during 1993–2006. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 57(1): 1–13. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2009.10.008
    [49]
    Rao S A, Saha S K, Pokhrel S, et al. 2011. Modulation of SST, SSS over northern Bay of Bengal on ISO time scale. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116: C09026
    [50]
    Rao R R, Sivakumar R. 2003. Seasonal variability of sea surface salinity and salt budget of the mixed layer of the north Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(C1): 3009. doi: 10.1029/2001JC000907
    [51]
    Sengupta D, Bharath Raj G N, Ravichandran M, et al. 2016. Near-surface salinity and stratification in the north Bay of Bengal from moored observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(9): 4448–4456. doi: 10.1002/2016GL068339
    [52]
    Sengupta D, Bharath Raj G N, Shenoi S S C. 2006. Surface freshwater from Bay of Bengal runoff and Indonesian throughflow in the tropical Indian Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 33: L22609. doi: 10.1029/2006GL027573
    [53]
    Shetye S R, Gouveia A D, Shankar D, et al. 1996. Hydrography and circulation in the western Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C6): 14011–14025. doi: 10.1029/95JC03307
    [54]
    Shetye S R, Shenoi S S C, Gouveia A D, et al. 1991. Wind-driven coastal upwelling along the western boundary of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon. Continental Shelf Research, 11(11): 1397–1408. doi: 10.1016/0278-4343(91)90042-5
    [55]
    Sprintall J, Tomczak M. 1992. Evidence of the barrier layer in the surface layer of the tropics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(C5): 7305–7316. doi: 10.1029/92JC00407
    [56]
    Sree Lekha J, Buckley J M, Tandon A, et al. 2018. Subseasonal dispersal of freshwater in the northern Bay of Bengal in the 2013 summer monsoon season. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 123(9): 6330–6348. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014181
    [57]
    Sun Qiwei, Du Yan, Zhang Yuhong, et al. 2019. Evolution of sea surface salinity anomalies in the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean during 2010–2011 influenced by a negative IOD event. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 124(5): 3428–3445. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014580
    [58]
    Suresh I, Vialard J, Lengaigne M, et al. 2013. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(21): 5740–5744. doi: 10.1002/2013GL058312
    [59]
    Tang Wenqing, Fore A, Yueh S, et al. 2017. Validating SMAP SSS with in situ measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 200: 326–340. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.021
    [60]
    Thadathil P, Muraleedharan P M, Rao R R, et al. 2007. Observed seasonal variability of barrier layer in the Bay of Bengal. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112: C02009
    [61]
    Thadathil P, Suresh I, Gautham S, et al. 2016. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121(8): 5682–5696. doi: 10.1002/2016JC011674
    [62]
    Thangaprakash V P, Girishkumar M S, Suprit K, et al. 2016. What controls seasonal evolution of sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal? Mixed layer heat budget analysis using moored buoy observations along 90°E. Oceanography, 29(2): 202–213. doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2016.52
    [63]
    Vinayachandran P N, Murty V S N, Ramesh Babu V. 2002. Observations of barrier layer formation in the Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(C12): 8018
    [64]
    Xi Jingyuan, Zhou Lei, Murtugudde R, et al. 2015. Impacts of intraseasonal SST anomalies on precipitation during Indian summer monsoon. Journal of Climate, 28(11): 4561–4575. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00096.1
    [65]
    Yu Lisan, McPhaden M J. 2011. Ocean preconditioning of Cyclone Nargis in the Bay of Bengal: interaction between Rossby waves, surface fresh waters, and sea surface temperatures. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 41(9): 1741–1755. doi: 10.1175/2011JPO4437.1
    [66]
    Zhou Lei, Murtugudde R. 2014. Impact of northward-propagating intraseasonal variability on the onset of Indian summer monsoon. Journal of Climate, 27(1): 126–139. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00214.1
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(11)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (147) PDF downloads(16) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return