Volume 40 Issue 5
May  2021
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Yan Li, Qingyuan Wang, Guoyu Ren, Guosong Wang, Qingliang Zhou. Homogenization and trend analysis of 1960–2015 in situ sea surface temperature observations along the coast of China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2021, 40(5): 36-46. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1725-2
Citation: Yan Li, Qingyuan Wang, Guoyu Ren, Guosong Wang, Qingliang Zhou. Homogenization and trend analysis of 1960–2015 in situ sea surface temperature observations along the coast of China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2021, 40(5): 36-46. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1725-2

Homogenization and trend analysis of 1960–2015 in situ sea surface temperature observations along the coast of China

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1725-2
Funds:  The Shenzhen Fundamental Research Program under contract No. JCYJ20200109110220482; the Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou) under contract No. GML2019ZD0604; the Shenzhen University Stability Support Program under contract No. 20200810000724001.
More Information
  • Corresponding author: E-mail: zhouql@cma.gov.cn
  • Received Date: 2020-03-13
  • Accepted Date: 2020-07-21
  • Available Online: 2021-04-29
  • Publish Date: 2021-05-01
  • Sea surface temperature (SST) measurements from 26 coastal hydrological stations of China during 1960–2015 were homogenized and analyzed in this study. The homogenous surface air temperature (SAT) series from meteorological stations which were highly correlated to SST series was used to construct the reference series. Monthly mean SST series were then derived and subjected to a statistical homogeneity test, called penalized maximal t test. Homogenized monthly mean SST series were obtained by adjusting all significant change points which were supported by historic metadata information. Results show that the majority of break points are caused by instrument change and station relocation, which accounts for about 61.3% and 24.2% of the total break points, respectively. The regionally averaged annual homogeneous SST series from the 26 stations shows a warming trend (0.19°C per decade). This result is consistent with that based on the homogenized annual mean SAT at the same region (0.22°C per decade), while the regionally averaged mean original SST series from the same stations shows a much weaker warming of 0.09°C per decade for 1960–2015. This finding suggests that the effects of artificial change points on the result of trend analysis are remarkable, and the warming rate from original SST observations since 1960 may be underestimated. Thus a high quality homogenized observation is crucial for robust detection and assessment of regional climate change. Furthermore, the trends of the seasonal mean homogenized SST were also analyzed. This work confirmed that there was an asymmetric seasonal temperature trends in the Chinese coastal water in the past decades, with the largest warming rate occurring in winter. At last, the significant warming in winter and its relationships to the variability of three large-scale atmospheric modes were investigated.
  • The two key gauge stations are used for monitoring the discharges of the Changjiang River and the Huanghe River (Zhang et al., 2014). The changes in the discharges at the two stations reflect the variations of the water fluxes from the two rivers to the sea. The data from the two gauge stations used in this study are collected from the Changjiang Water Conservancy Commission, the Huanghe River Conservancy Commission and the Bulletins of Chinese River Sediment.
  • loading
  • [1]
    Azorin-Molina C, Vicente-Serrano S M, McVicar T R, et al. 2014. Homogenization and assessment of observed near-surface wind speed trends over Spain and Portugal, 1961–2011. Journal of Climate, 27(10): 3692–3712. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00652.1
    Bao B, Ren Guoyu. 2014. Climatological characteristics and long-term change of SST over the marginal seas of China. Continental Shelf Research, 77: 96–106. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2014.01.013
    Belkin I M. 2009. Rapid warming of large marine ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography, 81(1–4): 207–213
    Cai Rongshuo, Tan Hongjian, Kontoyiannis H. 2017. Robust surface warming in offshore China seas and its relationship to the East Asian Monsoon wind field and ocean forcing on interdecadal time scales. Journal of Climate, 30(22): 8987–9005. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0016.1
    Cai Rongshuo, Tan Hongjian, Qi Qinghua. 2016. Impacts of and adaptation to inter-decadal marine climate change in coastal China seas. International Journal of Climatology, 36(11): 3770–3780. doi: 10.1002/joc.4591
    Cao Lijuan, Zhao Ping, Yan Zhongwei, et al. 2013. Instrumental temperature series in eastern and central China back to the nineteenth century. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(15): 8197–8207. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50615
    Chen Shangfeng, Chen Wen, Wei Ke. 2013. Recent trends in winter temperature extremes in Eastern China and their relationship with the Arctic Oscillation and ENSO. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 30(6): 1712–1724. doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-2296-8
    Committee on China’s National Assessment Report on Climate Change. 2007. National Assessment Report on Climate Change (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press, 80–105
    Deser C, Alexander M A, Xie Shangping, et al. 2010. Sea surface temperature variability: patterns and mechanisms. Annual Review of Marine Science, 2: 115–143. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120408-151453
    Ding Yihui. 2008. Introduction to Climate Change Science of China (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 1–281
    Frölicher T L, Laufkötter C. 2018. Emerging risks from marine heat waves. Nature Communications, 9: 650. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03163-6
    Gong Hainan, Wang Lin, Chen Wen, et al. 2018. Multidecadal fluctuation of the wintertime Arctic Oscillation pattern and its implication. Journal of Climate, 31(14): 5595–5608. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0530.1
    Halpern B S, Walbridge S, Selkoe K A, et al. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science, 319(5865): 948–952. doi: 10.1126/science.1149345
    Hansen J, Ruedy R, Sato M, et al. 2010. Global surface temperature change. Reviews of Geophysics, 48(4): RG4004. doi: 10.1029/2010RG000345
    Hausfather Z, Cowtan K, Menne M J, et al. 2016. Evaluating the impact of U.S. historical climatology network homogenization using the U.S. climate reference network. Geophysical Research Letter, 43(4): 1695–1701. doi: 10.1002/2015GL067640
    He Shengping. 2013. Reduction of the East Asian winter monsoon interannual variability after the mid-1980s and possible cause. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58(12): 1331–1338. doi: 10.1007/s11434-012-5468-5
    Huang Boyin, Liu Chunying, Banzon V F, et al. 2016. Assessing the impact of satellite-based observations in sea surface temperature trends. Geophysical Research Letter, 43(7): 3431–3437. doi: 10.1002/2016GL068757
    Kako S, Nakagawa T, Takayama K, et al. 2016. Impact of Changjiang River discharge on sea surface temperature in the East China Sea. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(6): 1735–1750. doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-15-0167.1
    Kalnay E, Kanamitsu R, Kistler W, et al. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3): 437–472. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2
    Kuglitsch F G, Auchmann R, Bleisch R, et al. 2012. Break detection of annual Swiss temperature series. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D13): D13105. doi: 10.1029/2012JD017729
    Li Yan, Mu Lin, Wang Guosong, et al. 2016. The detecting and adjusting of the sea surface temperature data homogeneity over coastal zone of circum Bohai Sea. Haiyang Xuebao (in Chinese), 38(3): 27–39
    Li Yan, Mu Lin, Wang Qingyuan, et al. 2020. High-quality sea surface temperature measurements along coast of the Bohai and Yellow seas in China and their long-term trends during 1960–2012. International Journal of Climatology, 40(1): 63–76. doi: 10.1002/joc.6194
    Li Qingxiang, Yang Su, Xu Wenhui, et al. 2015. China experiencing the recent warming hiatus. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(3): 889–898. doi: 10.1002/2014GL062773
    Li Qingxiang, Zhang Hongzheng, Liu Xiaoning, et al. 2009. A mainland China homogenized historical temperature dataset of 1951–2004. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(8): 1062–1066. doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2736.1
    Lima F P, Wethey D S. 2012. Three decades of high-resolution coastal sea surface temperatures reveal more than warming. Nature Communications, 3: 704. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1713
    Linkin M E, Nigam S. 2008. The North Pacific oscillation-West Pacific teleconnection pattern: mature-phase structure and winter impacts. Journal of Climate, 21(9): 1979–1997. doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI2048.1
    Malcher J, Schönwiese C D. 1987. Homogeneity, spatial correlation and spectral variance analysis of long European and North American air temperature records. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 38(3): 157–166. doi: 10.1007/BF00868100
    Minola L, Azorin-Molina C, Chen Deliang. 2016. Homogenization and assessment of observed near-surface wind speed trends across Sweden, 1956–2013. Journal of Climate, 29(20): 7397–7415. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0636.1
    Niu Feng, Li Zhanqing, Li Can, et al. 2010. Increase of wintertime fog in China: potential impacts of weakening of the Eastern Asian monsoon circulation and increasing aerosol loading. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 115(D7): D00K20. doi: 10.1029/2009jd013484
    Park K A, Lee E Y, Chang E, et al. 2015. Spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature and warming trends in the Yellow Sea. Journal of Marine Systems, 143: 24–38. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.10.013
    Pei Yuhua, Liu Xiaohui, He Hailun. 2017. Interpreting the sea surface temperature warming trend in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Science China Earth Sciences, 60(8): 1558–1568. doi: 10.1007/s11430-017-9054-5
    People’s Republic of China National Bureau of Technical Supervision. 2006. GB/T 14914-2006 The specification for offshore observation (in Chinese). Beijing: China Standards Press, 1–83
    Reeves J, Chen Jien, Wang Xiaolan, et al. 2007. A review and comparison of changepoint detection techniques for climate data. Journal of Applied Meteorological and Climatology, 46(6): 900–915. doi: 10.1175/JAM2493.1
    Ren Guoyu, Ding Yihui, Tang Guoli. 2017. An overview of Mainland China temperature change research. Journal of Meteorological Research, 31(1): 3–16. doi: 10.1007/s13351-017-6195-2
    Ren Guoyu, Guo Jun, Xu Mingzhi, et al. 2005. Climate changes of China’s mainland over the past half century. Acta Meteorologica Sinica (in Chinese), 63(6): 942–956
    Ren Guoyu, Li Jiao, Ren Yuyu, et al. 2015. An integrated procedure to determine a reference station network for evaluating and adjusting urban bias in surface air temperature data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 54(6): 1248–1266. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0295.1
    Ren Guoyu, Zhang Aiying, Chu Ziying, et al. 2010. Principles and procedures for selecting reference surface air temperature stations in China. Meteorological Science and Technology (in Chinese), 38(1): 78–85
    Ren Guoyu, Zhou Yaqing, Chu Ziying, et al. 2008. Urbanization effects on observed surface air temperature trends in north China. Journal of Climate, 21(6): 1333–1348. doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1348.1
    Reynolds R W, Smith T M, Liu Chunying, et al. 2007. Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate, 20(22): 5473–5496. doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI1824.1
    Ribeiro S, Caineta J, Costa A C. 2015. Review and discussion of homogenisation methods for climate data. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 94: 167–179. doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2015.08.007
    Sen P K. 1968. Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall’s tau. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 63(324): 1379–1389. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1968.10480934
    Stephenson T S, Goodess C M, Haylock M R, et al. 2008. Detecting inhomogeneities in Caribbean and adjacent Caribbean temperature data using sea-surface temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D21): D21116. doi: 10.1029/2007JD009127
    Stramska M, Białogrodzka J. 2015. Spatial and temporal variability of sea surface temperature in the Baltic Sea based on 32-years (1982–2013) of satellite data. Oceanologia, 57(3): 223–235. doi: 10.1016/j.oceano.2015.04.004
    Sun Xiangping. 2006. China Offshore Area (in Chinese). Beijing: China Ocean Press, 97–120
    Sun Baimin, Li Chongyin. 1997. Relationship between disturbance of East Asian trough and tropical convection activities. Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 42(5): 500–504
    Sun Xiubao, Ren Guoyu, Ren Yuyu, et al. 2018. A remarkable climate warming hiatus over northeast China since 1998. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 133(1): 579–594. doi: 10.1007/s00704-017-2205-7
    Thompson D W J, Wallace J M. 1998. The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(9): 1297–1300. doi: 10.1029/98GL00950
    Vincent L A, Wang Xiaolan, Milewska E J, et al. 2012. A second generation of homogenized Canadian monthly surface air temperature for climate trend analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D18): D18110. doi: 10.1029/2012JDO17859
    Wan Hui, Wang Xiaolan, Swail V R. 2010. Homogenization and trend analysis of Canadian near-surface wind speeds. Journal of Climate, 23(5): 1209–1225. doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3200.1
    Wang Xiaolan. 2008a. Accounting for autocorrelation in detecting mean shifts in climate data series using the penalized maximal t or F test. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 47(9): 2423–2444. doi: 10.1175/2008JAMC1741.1
    Wang Xiaolan. 2008b. Penalized maximal F test for detecting undocumented mean shift without trend change. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25(3): 368–384. doi: 10.1175/2007JTECHA982.1
    Wang Xiaolan, Chen Hanfeng, Wu Yuehua, et al. 2010. New techniques for the detection and adjustment of shifts in daily precipitation data series. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 49(12): 2416–2436. doi: 10.1175/2010jamc2376.1
    Wang Xiaolan, Feng Yang. 2013. RHtestsV4 user manual. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Environment Canada
    Wang Xiaolan, Wen Qiuhan, Wu Yuehua. 2007. Penalized maximal t test for detecting undocumented mean change in climate data series. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46(6): 916–931. doi: 10.1175/JAM2504.1
    Xie Shangping, Hafner J, Tanimoto Y, et al. 2002. Bathymetric effect on the winter sea surface temperature and climate of the Yellow and East China seas. Geophysical Research Letter, 29(24): 2228. doi: 10.1029/2002GL015884
    Xu Wenhui, Li Qingxaing, Wang Xiaolan, et al. 2013. Homogenization of Chinese daily surface air temperatures and analysis of trends in the extreme temperature indices. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmosphere, 118(17): 9708–9720. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50791
    Yang Xuchao, Hou Yiling, Chen Baode. 2011. Observed surface warming induced by urbanization in East China. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 116(D14): D14113. doi: 10.1029/2010JD015452
    Yang Su, Wang Xiaolan, Wild M. 2018. Homogenization and trend analysis of the 1958–2016 In Situ surface solar radiation records in China. Journal of Climate, 31(11): 4529–4541. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0891.1
    Yeh S W, Kim C H. 2010. Recent warming in the Yellow/East China Sea during winter and the associated atmospheric circulation. Continental Shelf Research, 30(13): 1428–1434. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2010.05.002
    You Qinglong, Ren Guoyu, Fraedrich K, et al. 2013. Winter temperature extremes in China and their possible causes. International Journal of Climatology, 33(6): 1444–1455. doi: 10.1002/joc.3525
    Zhang Lei, Ren Guoyu, Ren Yuyu, et al. 2014. Effect of data homogenization on estimate of temperature trend: a case of Huairou station in Beijing Municipality. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 115(3): 365–373. doi: 10.1007/s00704-013-0894-0
    Zhang Liping, Wu Lixin, Lin Xiaopei, et al. 2010. Modes and mechanisms of sea surface temperature low-frequency variations over the coastal China seas. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 115(C8): C08031. doi: 10.1029/2009JC006025
    Zhou Xiaoying, Hu Debao, Wang Cizhen, et al. 2005. Seasonal and interannual SST variations in the Changjiang Estuary. Periodical of Ocean University of China (in Chinese), 35(3): 357–362
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(9)  / Tables(2)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (134) PDF downloads(8) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint