SHAN Xiujuan, LI Xiansen, YANG Tao, SHARIFUZZAMAN S M, ZHANG Guozheng, JIN Xianshi, DAI Fangqun. Biological responses of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) to multiple stressors:a case study in the Yellow Sea, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2017, 36(10): 39-47. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1091-2
Citation: SHAN Xiujuan, LI Xiansen, YANG Tao, SHARIFUZZAMAN S M, ZHANG Guozheng, JIN Xianshi, DAI Fangqun. Biological responses of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) to multiple stressors:a case study in the Yellow Sea, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2017, 36(10): 39-47. doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1091-2

Biological responses of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) to multiple stressors:a case study in the Yellow Sea, China

doi: 10.1007/s13131-017-1091-2
  • Received Date: 2016-09-05
  • Temporal changes in biological characteristics of small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis in the Yellow Sea were examined for the period of 1960-2008. The body size and age of small yellow croaker decreased substantially, in particular, average length of fish in 2008 was reduced by~85% than those occurring in 1985, and at that time~93% of the total catch was dominated by one-year-old individuals. Correspondingly, growth parameters also varied significantly over the years, i.e., k (growth coefficient) and t0 (zero-length age) gradually increased from 0.26 and -0.58 year in 1960 to 0.56 and -0.25 year in 2008, respectively. Although, L∞ (body length) sharply decreased from 34.21 cm in 1960 to 24.06 cm in 2008, and tr (inflexion age) decreased from 3.78 year in 1960 to 1.61 year in 2008. There was a great increase both in natural mortality coefficient and fishing mortality coefficient. However, according to the gray correlation analysis, changes in the biological characteristics of small yellow croaker were induced by different stressors ranked as:fishing vessel power>feeding grade>sea surface temperature. This study suggests that the active fishery management measures for biological characters of fish populations should be considered.
  • loading
  • Alheit J, Möllmann C, Dutz J, et al. 2005. Synchronous ecological regime shifts in the central Baltic and the North Sea in the late 1980s. ICES J Mar Sci, 62(7):1205-1215
    Anastasopoulou A, Mytilineou C, Lefkaditou E, et al. 2013. Diet and feeding strategy of blackmouth catshark Galeus melastomus. J Fish Biol, 83(6):1637-1655
    Bergstad O A. 2013. North Atlantic demersal deep-water fish distribution and biology:present knowledge and challenges for the future. J Fish Biol, 83(6):1489-1507
    CCICED. 2013. Ecosystem Issues and Policy Options Addressing the Sustainable Development of China's Ocean and Coasts (in Chinese),Beijing: China Environmental Science Press
    Cheng Jiahua, Lin Longshan, Ling Jianzhong, et al. 2004. Effects of summer close season and rational utilization on redlip croaker (Larimichthys polyactis Bleeker) resource in the East China Sea Region. J Fish Sci China (in Chinese), 11(6):554-560
    Cheung W W L, Lam V W Y, Sarmiento J L, et al. 2009. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish Fish, 10(3):235-251
    Cheung W W L, Watson R, Pauly D. 2013. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature, 497(7449):365-368
    The Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries Bureau of People's Republic of China. 1958. China Fishery Statistics Yearbook. Beijing:China Agriculture Press
    Conover D O, Munch S B. 2002. Sustaining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science, 297(5578):94-96
    Cury P, Bakun A, Crawford R J M, et al. 2000. Small pelagics in upwelling systems:patterns of interaction and structural changes in "wasp-waist" ecosystems. ICES J Mar Sci, 57(3):603-618
    Ding Fengyuan, Lin Longshan, Li Jiansheng, et al. 2007. Relationship between redlip croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) spawning stock distribution and water masses dynamics in Northern East China Sea region. J Nat Resour (in Chinese), 22(6):1013-1019
    Dulvy N K, Rogers S I, Jennings S, et al. 2008. Climate change and deepening of the North Sea fish assemblage:a biotic indicator of warming seas. J Appl Ecol, 45(4):1029-1039
    Fan Wei, Cheng Yanhong, Shen Xinqiang. 2001. Effects of global environment change and human activity on fishery resources. J Fish Sci China (in Chinese), 8(4):91-94
    Gulland J A. 1984. Fish Stock Assessment:A Manual of Basic Methods. FAO/Wiley Series on Food and Agriculture,:68-69
    Guo Xupeng, Jin Xianshi, Dai Fangqun. 2006. Growth variations of small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis Bleeker) in the Bohai Sea. J Fish Sci China (in Chinese), 13(2):243-249
    Heino M, Godø O R. 2002. Fisheries-induced selection pressures in the context of sustainable fisheries. Bull Mar Sci, 70(2):639-656
    Hong Huasheng, He Faxiang, Chen Gang. 1998. Relationship between ENSO events and plankton abundance in western Taiwan Strait. Trans Oceanol Limnol (in Chinese),(4):1-9
    Hurst T P, Munch S B, Lavelle K A. 2012. Thermal reaction norms for growth vary among cohorts of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). Mar Biol, 159(10):2173-2183
    Jin Xianshi, Tang Qisheng. 1996. Changes in fish species diversity and dominant species composition in the Yellow Sea. Fish Res, 26(3-4):337-352
    Jin Xianshi, Zhao Xianyong, Meng Tianxiang, et al. 2005. Living Resources and Their Habit in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea (in Chinese),
    Kim J K, Kim Y H, Kim N J, et al. 2010. Genetic diversity, relationships and demographic history of the small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis (Pisces:Sciaenidae) from Korea and China inferred from mitochondrial control region sequence data. Anim Cells Syst, 14(1):45-51
    Law R. 2000. Fishing, selection, and phenotypic evolution. ICES J Mar Sci, 57(3):659-668
    Le Cren E D. 1951. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the perch (Perca fluviatilis). J Anim Ecol, 20(2):201-219
    Lehodey P, Bertignac M, Hampton J, et al. 1997. El Niño southern oscillation and tuna in the western Pacific. Nature, 389(6652):715-718
    Li Zhonglu, Jin Xianshi, Zhang Bo, et al. 2012. Interannual variations in the population characteristics of the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in the Yellow Sea. Oceanol Limnol Sin (in Chinese), 43(5):924-931
    Li Zhonglu, Shan Xiujuan, Jin Xianshi, et al. 2011. Long-term variations in body length and age at maturity of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis Bleeker, 1877) in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China. Fish Res, 110(1):67-74
    Lin Longshan, Cheng Jiahua. 2004. An analysis of the current situation of fishery biology of small yellow croaker in the East China Sea. Period Ocean Univ China (in Chinese), 34(4):565-570
    Lin Xinzhuo, Deng Siming, Huang Zhengyi, et al. 1965. Studies on biological characteristics of small yellow croaker. In:Zhu Yuanding, Zhu Shuping, eds. Symposium on Marine Fisheries Resources (in Chinese). Beijing:Agriculture Press, 84-108
    Lin Longshan, Jiang Yazhou, Yan Liping, et al. 2009a. Study on the distribution characteristics and fecundity of spawning stock of Larimichthys polyactis in the southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea. J Shanghai Ocean Univ (in Chinese), 18(4):453-459
    Lin Longshan, Ying Yiping, Han Zhiqiang, et al. 2009b. AFLP analysis on genetic diversity and population structure of small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis. Afr J Biotechnol, 8(12):2700-2706
    Linke T E, Platell M E, Potter I C. 2001. Factors influencing the partitioning of food resources among six fish species in a large embayment with juxtaposing bare sand and seagrass habitats. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 266(2):193-217
    Liu Xiaoshun. 1990. Investigations and Divisions of Fishery Resources in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (in Chinese),Beijing: Agriculture Press, 84–108
    Luo Bingzheng, Lu Jiwu, Lan Yonglun, et al. 1993. Population dynamics and life history patterns for main marine fishes in the coastal waters of China. Stud Mar Sin (in Chinese), 34:123-137
    Lv Yaoping. 2005. The gray correlative analysis on environmen整湡??畦潡祣楴湯杲??卡桦楦??楴湩杮穧栠慭湯杲???どぴ????愠牴楩湬敡??捡漠汤潵杲祩??椠湷??桴楥湲敩獮敧???湩摳?攠摓???攨楩橮椠湃杨??卥捳楥攩測挠攲?倨爸攩猺猱?戭爱?匼桢楲渾?奥????剩潮捩桮敧琬???????攠湚湨楩湭来獮?匬??敩瑮?慘汩???とど???啴猠楡湬朮?猲椰稰攳?戠慇獥敮摥?楩湣搠楤捩慶瑥潲牳獩?瑹漠?敮瘠慳汭畡慬瑬攠?瑥桬敬?敷挠潣獲祯獡瑫敥浲?攨晐晳敥捵瑤獯?潣晩?晥楮獡栠楰湯杬?????即????愠牒?卐捄椠????????????????扥牲?匠桓畣楩??潩湮椠慃湨???びづ???匱琱用搳礩?漱渹?琭栲攰″愼杢敲 ̄慍湹摥?杳爠潒眠瑁栬?潗景?偭猠敂甮搠漲猰挰椳愮攠湒慡?灩潤氠祷慯捲瑬楤獷?楤湥?瑤桥数?卥潴畩瑯桮?潯晦?瑰桲敥?奡整汯汲潹眠?卩敳慨?慣湯摭?瑵桮敩?乩潥牳琮栠?潡晴?瑲桥攬??愲猳琨??栳椷温愺′匸攰愭????婢桲放樦椣愲渰朹※佩捱敵慥湮?啍測椠療??乣慨瑯?匠捍椮?′?椰渴??桉業湰敡獣整???㈠??ㄠ??ㄦ??名??扯爠?卶桥畮楴??潯湮椠慰湥??卧畩湣?塦楩晳畨???慥湳?婩桮椠材慥湲杵??敡瑮?慷污???び?????潰爠灓桥潡氠潒来楳挠慡氬?瘵愱爨椶愭琹椩漺渵?愳渭愵氷礴猼楢獲 ̄慏浬潳湥杮?灅漠灍甬氠慈瑥楩潮湯猠?漬映??慬灬慹渠敇猠敒?匠灥慴渠楡獬栮?洲愰挰欴攮爠敍污?卵捲潡浴扩敯牮漠浴潲牥畮獤?渠楩灮桤潩湣楡畴獩?楥渠?瑦栠敲?奰敩汤氠潥睶?卬敵慴?慯湮搠??慥獣瑥??桤椠湴慨?匠散慯?????楥猠桯??桮楯湲慴??楲湮??桯楤渮攠獎敡?????????????????戳爲?匹洳愵氼敢???????慲渠杍氠潌椬猠?呵?????攠湐搮爠椲挰欱′?????敲瑭?慬氠???づ?????牮漠浳?晩牭潭湩摮獧?瑡潣?晩楶獩桴?琠桡敮?甠獨敡?潩晴?楴渠摣楨捯慩瑣潥爠獩?映潪牵?敥据潩汬潥朠楐捡慣汩?浩潣渠楣瑯潤爠椨湇条?極湳?浭慡牣楲湯散?扰敨湡瑬桵楳挩?攠捍潡獲礠獂瑩敯浬猬??眵椹琨栱‰挩愺猲攱?猵琭甲搱椹攴猼?晲爾潐浡?瑬敹洠灄攮爠愱琹改‰圮攠獌瑥敮牧湴??畣獯瑮牶慥汲楴慥??剣敡癴??椠獣桵??楥潳氠??楤猠桴??㈠?????????????扴牨?卯畦??楩汳慨湥??夠畆慩湳?奢慹潴捥栬甠???椩愺渲朴??椹渼杢穲栾潐湡杵??ㄠ??????摩癳慴湥据敳獥?椠湖?瀠桄祡獬楳捧慡污?潤挠敊愬渠潥杴爠慡灬栮礠?椹渹??栠楆湩慳?獩楮湧挠敤?瑷桮攠?敡獲瑩慮扥氠楦獯桯浤攠湷瑥?潳昮?瑓档敩?偮剣????挷琹愨‵?攵漲瀩栺礸猶‰匭椸渶″?楢湲 ̄?桥楲湲敹猠敁??????卷ㄠ????????扩牳?半甠湒??楥慴渠煡楬愮漠?‰?椵??慃楬祩慭湡??堠畣?呡楮慧湥樠畡湮??敤瑩?慴汲???ぴ?????敨癩敦汴潳瀠浩敮渠瑭?潲晩?浥椠捦物潳獨慥瑳攮氠汓楣瑩敥?浣慥爬欠攳爰猸?昵漷爳‰琩栺攱?猱洲愭氱氹?礵攼汢汲漾睐?据牫潡慳欠敌爬??慬物楰浨楡据桴琠桍礠獓?瀠潉汶祥慲捳瑯楮猠??卌挠楋愮攠渱椹搷愱攮??扯祯?挠版潡獢獩?獳瀠敯捦椠敁獬?慡浣灯汲楥昬椠捂慬瑵楥潦湩???敵湮敡琬??潮汤?剂敯獮???ㄠ??????????????扗牡?卥畲湳?夠慆潩??娠桢慵湬杬??潩???栵攲渮??桡慬潩??敲瑮?慡氺???ちひぴ???晴映敯捦琠?潩晳?爠慡瑮楤漠湇?慭湥搬?晓整敡摴?猠灯敦挠楃敡獬?潦湯?杮物潡眬琠栱?愱渰搵?敢捲漾汐潩杴楣捨慥汲?捔漠湊瘬攠版獡楲潴渠?攠晊映楂挮椠攱渹挸礲?漠晆???獥灲敩捥楳攠獅?潯晬?獧敹愬?景楮獤桯敮猺?????業猠案?卬捭椼??栾楒湩慪??楤湯??栠楁渠敄猬攠?????????ㄠ????扬牨?呲慤渠杇?先椬猠桥整渠条??㈠??????慒牥楳湯敬??楮癧椠湴杨?删敥獦潦略牣捴攠獯?愠湣摬?呭桡整楥爠??慡扮楧瑥愠瑯?椠湦??桨椠湰慯?獵??硴捩汯畮獳椮瘠敉??捓漠湊漠浍楡捲?婓潣湩攬??椶渨??栺椱渵攷猰攭???攳椼橢楲渾杒???杳爭楍捥畮汤瑥畺爠敊?偁爬攠獍獥?扤牯?呡愠湃朠?儠楒献栠攲渰朰??夠故??慥潣穴桳漠湯杦????????唹琷椭氱椹稹愸琠楯潮渠?慨湥搠??潳湴獲敩牢癵慴瑩楯潮渠?潦映??楡獬桬攠牰祥?剡敧獩潣甠牦捩敳獨?楯湦?琠桴敨?匠桷慥湳摴漠湣杯??潴愠獯瑦愠求?坪慡琠敃牡獬??楯湲??桡椮渠敉獮整???故楮橶楩湲杯?匠捈楥敡湬捴敨?倠爲攨猱猩?戴爵?吶栳攼楢獲放湓?呡?????慪汵摡睮椬渠???????で?????潡癩攠浆敡湮瑧獱?慮測搠?摴攠灡瑬栮?琲攰洱瀱攮爠慓瑥畡牳敯?摡楬猠瑡牮楤戠畡瑮楮潵湡?漠晶?瑲桩敡?敩捯瑮潳琠桩敮爠浢楩捯?卯捧潩浣扡牬椠摣???捡慣湴瑥桲潩捳祴扩楣畳洠?獦漠汳慭湡摬牬椠??睬慬桯潷漠???楡湫?瑲栠敌?睲敩獭瑩散牨湴?乹潳爠瑰桯??瑡汣慴湩瑳椠捩???慨牥??楥潮汴????????????????㈠???扬牯?吠牓略敡洮愠湐???丠??剳楨挠歓慣扩礠?剩??????卥桳敥瀩栬愠爳搲?匶??祝?????呲栾敓牨洀愀氀??琀爀漀瀀栀椀挀?愀渀搀?洀攀琀愀戀漀氀椀挀?氀椀昀攀?栀椀猀琀漀爀椀攀猀?漀昀?椀渀愀挀挀攀猀猀椀戀氀攀?昀椀猀栀攀猀?爀攀瘀攀愀氀攀搀?昀爀漀洀?猀琀愀戀氀攀?椀猀漀琀漀瀀攀?愀渀愀氀礀猀攀猀?愀?挀愀猀攀?猀琀甀搀礀?甀猀椀渀最?漀爀愀渀最攀?爀漀甀最栀礀??漀瀀氀漀猀琀攀琀栀甀猀?愀琀氀愀渀琀椀挀甀猀?????椀猀栀??椀漀氀??????????????????戀爀?圀愀氀猀栀???刀???甀渀挀栀?匀?????栀椀戀愀?匀??攀琀?愀氀???  ????愀氀愀搀愀瀀琀椀瘀攀?挀栀愀渀最攀猀?椀渀?洀甀氀琀椀瀀氀攀?琀爀愀椀琀猀?挀愀甀猀攀搀?戀礀?昀椀猀栀椀渀最?椀洀瀀攀搀椀洀攀渀琀猀?琀漀?瀀漀瀀甀氀愀琀椀漀渀?爀攀挀漀瘀攀爀礀???挀漀氀??攀琀琀???????????????戀爀?圀愀渀?刀甀椀樀椀渀最???椀愀渀?堀椀愀漀搀漀渀最??? ????匀椀稀攀?瘀愀爀椀愀戀椀氀椀琀礀?愀渀搀?渀愀琀甀爀愀氀?洀漀爀琀愀氀椀琀礀?搀礀渀愀洀椀挀猀?漀昀?愀渀挀栀漀瘀礀??渀最爀愀甀氀椀猀?樀愀瀀漀渀椀挀甀猀?攀最最猀?甀渀搀攀爀?栀椀最栀?昀椀猀栀椀渀最?瀀爀攀猀猀甀爀攀???愀爀??挀漀氀?倀爀漀最?匀攀爀??????????????戀爀?圀愀渀最?堀甀攀栀甀椀???甀??攀椀礀愀渀??儀椀甀?夀漀渀最猀漀渀最???  ????攀渀最琀栀?眀攀椀最栀琀?爀攀氀愀琀椀漀渀猀栀椀瀀猀?漀昀?椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀?挀漀洀洀攀爀挀椀愀氀?昀椀猀栀攀猀?椀渀?渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀?匀漀甀琀栀??栀椀渀愀?匀攀愀????伀挀攀愀渀漀最爀?吀愀椀眀愀渀?匀琀爀愀椀琀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????????????戀爀?圀攀椀?匀栀攀渀最???椀愀渀最?圀攀椀洀椀渀????????匀琀甀搀礀?漀渀?昀漀漀搀?眀攀戀?漀昀?昀椀猀栀攀猀?椀渀?琀栀攀?夀攀氀氀漀眀?匀攀愀??伀挀攀愀渀漀氀??椀洀渀漀氀?匀椀渀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????????????戀爀?堀甀攀?夀椀渀最???椀渀?堀椀愀渀猀栀椀??娀栀愀渀最??漀??攀琀?愀氀???  ????椀攀琀?挀漀洀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀?愀渀搀?猀攀愀猀漀渀愀氀?瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀?椀渀?昀攀攀搀椀渀最?栀愀戀椀琀猀?漀昀?猀洀愀氀氀?礀攀氀氀漀眀?挀爀漀愀欀攀爀?倀猀攀甀搀漀猀挀椀愀攀渀愀?瀀漀氀礀愀挀琀椀猀??氀攀攀欀攀爀?椀渀?琀栀攀?挀攀渀琀爀愀氀?夀攀氀氀漀眀?匀攀愀?????椀猀栀?匀挀椀??栀椀渀愀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????????????戀爀?夀愀渀??椀瀀椀渀最???椀??椀愀渀猀栀攀渀最??匀栀攀渀??攀最愀渀最??攀琀?愀氀???  ???嘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀猀?椀渀?搀椀攀琀?挀漀洀瀀漀猀椀琀椀漀渀?愀渀搀?昀攀攀搀椀渀最?椀渀琀攀渀猀椀琀礀?漀昀?猀洀愀氀氀?礀攀氀氀漀眀?挀爀漀愀欀攀爀??愀爀椀洀椀挀栀琀栀礀猀?瀀漀氀礀愀挀琀椀猀??氀攀攀欀攀爀?椀渀?琀栀攀?猀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀?夀攀氀氀漀眀?匀攀愀?愀渀搀?渀漀爀琀栀攀爀渀??愀猀琀??栀椀渀愀?匀攀愀???愀爀??椀猀栀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????????????戀爀?娀攀渀最??椀渀最???椀渀?堀椀愀渀猀栀椀???椀??甀最甀漀??攀琀?愀氀???  ????攀挀甀渀搀椀琀礀?愀渀搀?椀琀猀?瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀猀?漀昀?猀洀愀氀氀?礀攀氀氀漀眀?挀爀漀愀欀攀爀??倀猀攀甀搀漀猀挀椀愀攀渀愀?瀀漀氀礀愀琀椀挀猀??椀渀?琀栀攀??漀栀愀椀?匀攀愀???愀爀?匀挀椀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????? ????戀爀?娀栀愀渀最??甀漀稀栀攀渀最???椀?堀椀愀渀猀攀渀???椀渀?堀椀愀渀猀栀椀??攀琀?愀氀??? ? ???爀漀眀琀栀??洀漀爀琀愀氀椀琀礀?愀渀搀?漀瀀琀椀洀甀洀?挀愀琀挀栀愀戀氀攀?猀椀稀攀?漀昀?猀洀愀氀氀?礀攀氀氀漀眀?挀爀漀愀欀攀爀???愀爀椀洀椀挀栀琀栀礀猀?瀀漀氀礀愀挀琀椀猀??氀攀攀欀攀爀??椀渀?琀栀攀?匀漀甀琀栀攀爀渀?夀攀氀氀漀眀?匀攀愀?????椀猀栀?匀挀椀??栀椀渀愀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????????????戀爀?娀栀愀渀最??漀???椀?娀栀漀渀最礀椀???椀渀?堀椀愀渀猀栀椀??? ?????甀渀挀琀椀漀渀愀氀?最爀漀甀瀀猀?漀昀?昀椀猀栀?愀猀猀攀洀戀氀愀最攀猀?愀渀搀?琀栀攀椀爀?洀愀樀漀爀?猀瀀攀挀椀攀猀?椀渀?琀栀攀??漀栀愀椀?匀攀愀?????椀猀栀??栀椀渀愀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀???????????????戀爀?娀栀愀渀最??漀??吀愀渀最?儀椀猀栀攀渀最???  ???匀琀甀搀礀?漀渀?琀爀漀瀀栀椀挀?氀攀瘀攀氀?漀昀?椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀?爀攀猀漀甀爀挀攀猀?猀瀀攀挀椀攀猀?愀琀?栀椀最栀?琀爀漀瀀栀椀挀?氀攀瘀攀氀猀?椀渀?琀栀攀??漀栀愀椀?匀攀愀??夀攀氀氀漀眀?匀攀愀?愀渀搀??愀猀琀??栀椀渀愀?匀攀愀???搀瘀??愀爀?匀挀椀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀?????????????? ??戀爀?娀栀攀渀最?夀甀愀渀樀椀愀???栀攀渀?堀甀攀稀栀漀渀最???栀攀渀最??椀愀栀甀愀??攀琀?愀氀???  ????椀瘀椀渀最?刀攀猀漀甀爀挀攀猀?愀渀搀??渀瘀椀爀漀渀洀攀渀琀?椀渀?琀栀攀??漀渀琀椀渀攀渀琀愀氀?匀栀攀氀昀?漀昀?琀栀攀??愀猀琀??栀椀渀愀?匀攀愀??椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀???戀爀?娀栀漀甀?夀漀渀最搀漀渀最??堀甀??愀渀砀椀愀渀最???椀甀?娀椀昀愀渀??攀琀?愀氀???  ?????猀琀甀搀礀?漀渀?瘀愀爀椀愀琀椀漀渀?漀昀?猀琀漀挀欀?猀琀爀甀挀琀甀爀攀?漀昀?栀愀椀爀琀愀氀氀??吀爀椀挀栀椀甀爀甀猀?栀愀甀洀攀氀愀?椀渀?琀栀攀??愀猀琀??栀椀渀愀?匀攀愀????娀栀攀樀椀愀渀最?伀挀攀愀渀?唀渀椀瘀??一愀琀?匀挀椀???椀渀??栀椀渀攀猀攀??????????????? 
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (908) PDF downloads(1010) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return