LI Yuhong, ZHAN Liyang, ZHANG Jiexia, CHEN Liqi. Equilibrator-based measurements of dissolved methane in the surface ocean using an integrated cavity output laser absorption spectrometer[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2015, 34(6): 34-41. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0685-9
Citation: LI Yuhong, ZHAN Liyang, ZHANG Jiexia, CHEN Liqi. Equilibrator-based measurements of dissolved methane in the surface ocean using an integrated cavity output laser absorption spectrometer[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2015, 34(6): 34-41. doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0685-9

Equilibrator-based measurements of dissolved methane in the surface ocean using an integrated cavity output laser absorption spectrometer

doi: 10.1007/s13131-015-0685-9
  • Received Date: 2014-05-30
  • Rev Recd Date: 2014-09-14
  • A new off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) is coupled to Weiss equilibrator for continuous highresolution dissolved methane measurement in the surface ocean. The time constant for the equilibrator in freshwater at room temperature is determined via dis-equilibration and re-equilibration experiments. The constant for methane is about 40 min. The system is calibrated using a standard gas of 3.980×10-6, and the precision of the ICOS for methane is 0.07%. This system is equipped onboard to measure the spatial distribution in methane concentrations of South Yellow Sea (SYS) along the cruise track from Shanghai to Qingdao. Result shows that the methane concentration varies from 2.79 to 36.36 nmol/L, reveals a significant pattern of methane source in SYS, and a distinct decreasing trend from south to north. The peak value occurs at the coast area outside mouth of the Changjiang River, likely to be affected by the Changjiang diluted water mass dissolving a large amount of rich in methane. Moreover, all the surface waters are oversaturated, air-to-sea fluxes range from 98.59 to 5 485.35 μmol/(m2·d) (average value (1 169.74±1 398.46) μmol/(m2·d)), indicating a source region for methane to the atmosphere.
  • loading
  • Baer D S, Paul J B, Gupta M, et al. 2002. Sensitive absorption meas-urements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy. Appl Phys B, 75(2-3): 261-265
    Bange H W. 2006. Nitrous oxide and methane in European coastal waters. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci, 70(3): 361-374
    Bates T S, Kelly K C, Johnson J E. 1993. Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved biogenic gases (DMS, CH4, CO, CO2) in the equatori-al Pacific during the SAGA 3 experiment. J Geophys Res, 98(D9): 16969-16977
    Bates T S, Kelly K C, Johnson J E, et al. 1996. A reevaluation of the open ocean source of methane to the atmosphere. J Geophys Res, 101(D3): 6953-6961
    Butler J H, Elkins J W, Brunson C M, et al. 1988. Trace gases in and over the West Pacific and East Indian Oceans during the El Nino-Southern oscillation event of 1987. NOAA, Boulder, CO(USA). Air Resources Lab, 4-32
    Butler J H, Elkins J W, Thompson T M, et al. 1989. Tropospheric and dissolved N2O of the West Pacific and East Indian Oceans dur-ing the El Ni.o southern oscillation event of 1987. J Geophys Res, 94(D12): 14865-14877
    Cicerone R J, Oremland R S. 1988. Biogeochemical aspects of atmo-spheric methane. Global Biogeochem Cy, 2(4): 299-327
    Damm E, Helmke E, Thoms S, et al. 2010. Methane production in aer-obic oligotrophic surface water in the central Arctic Ocean. Biogeosci, 7(3): 1099-1108
    Ditchfield A K, Wilson S T, Hart M C, et al. 2012. Identification of pu-tative methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens within sedimenting material and copepod faecal pellets. Aqua Micro Eco, 67(2): 151-160
    Erickson D J. 1993. A stability dependent theory for air-sea gas ex-change. J Geophys Res: Oceans (1978-2012), 98(C5): 8471-8488
    Frankignoulle M, Borges A, Biondo R. 2001. A new design of equilib-rator to monitor carbon dioxide in highly dynamic and turbid environments. Water Res, 35(5): 1344-1347
    Grefe I, Kaiser J. 2013. Equilibrator-based measurements of dis-solved nitrous oxide in the surface ocean using an integrated cavity output laser absorption spectrometer. Ocean Sci Dis, 10: 1031-1065
    Gu Peipei. 2012. Distribution, fluxes, production and transformation of CH4 and N2O in representative rivers and estuaries (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Qingdao: Ocean University of China, 1-77
    Gülzow W, Rehder G, Schneider B, et al. 2011. A new method for con-tinuous measurement of methane and carbon dioxide in sur-face waters using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS): an example from the Baltic Sea. Limnol Oceanogr Meth, 9(5): 176-184
    Hendriks D M D, Dolman A J, Van Der Molen M K, et al. 2008. A com-pact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measure-ments using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. At-mos Chem Phys, 8(2): 431-443
    Houghton J T, Ding Y, Griggs D J, et al. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The scientific basis: contribution of working group I to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Hur H B, Jacobs G A, Teague W J. 1999. Monthly variations of water masses in the Yellow and East China Seas, November 6, 1998. J Phys Oceanogr, 55(2): 171-184
    IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contri-bution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Johnson J E. 1999. Evaluation of a seawater equilibrator for ship-board analysis of dissolved oceanic trace gases. Anal Chem Acta, 395(1-2): 119-132
    Karl D M, Beversdorf L, Bj.rkman K M, et al. 2008. Aerobic produc-tion of methane in the sea. Nat Geo, 1(7): 473-478
    Keir R S, Greinert J, Rhein M, et al. 2005. Methane and methane car-bon isotope ratios in the Northeast Atlantic including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (50°N). Deep-Sea Res Pt I: Oceanographic Re-search Papers, 52(6) 1043-1070
    Lammers S, Suess E. 1994. An improved head-space analysis method for methane in seawater. Mar Chem, 47(2): 115-125
    Liss P S, Merlivat L. 1986. Air-sea gas exchange rates: Introduction and synthesis. The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling, 185: 113-127
    Liu Shuxun, Shen Xinqiang, Wang Youqin, et al. 1992. Preliminary analysis of distribution and variation of perennialmonthly mean water masses in the Bohai Sea, the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea. Acta Oceanol Sin, 11(4): 483-498
    Reeburgh W S. 2007. Oceanic methane biogeochemistry. Chem Rev, 107(2): 486-513
    Rehder G, Suess E. 2001. Methane and pCO2 in the Kuroshio and the South China Sea during maximum summer surface temperat-ures. Mar Chem, 75(1-2): 89-108
    Schmitt M, Faber E, Botz R, et al. 1991. Extraction of methane from seawater using ultrasonic vacuum degassing. Anal Chem, 63(5): 529-532
    Schneider B, Kremling K, Duinker J C. 1992. CO2 partial pressure in Northeast Atlantic and adjacent shelf waters: Processes and seasonal variability. J Marine Syst, 3(6): 453-463
    Schneider B, Sadkowiak B, Wachholz F. 2007. A new method for con-tinuous measurements of O2 in surface water in combination with pCO2 measurements: implications for gas phase equilibra-tion. Mar Chem, 103(1-2): 163-171
    Smethie W M Jr, Takahashi T, Chipman D W, et al. 1985. Gas ex-change and CO2 flux in the tropical Atlantic Ocean determined from 222Rn and pCO2 measurements. J Geophy Res: Oceans (1978-2012), 90(C4): 7005-7022
    Swinnerton J W, Linnenbom V J, Cheek C H. 1962. Determination of dissolved gases in aqueous solutions by gas chromatography. Anal Chem, 34(4): 483-485
    Takahashi T, Sutherland S C, Wanninkhof R, et al. 2009. Climatolo-gical mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO2, and net sea-air CO2 flux over the global oceans. Deep-Sea Res Pt II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 56(8-10): 554-577
    Tilbrook B D, Karl D M. 1994. Dissolved methane distributions, sources, and sinks in the western Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. J Geophy Res, 99(C8): 16383-16393
    Wanninkhof R. 1992. Relationship between wind speed and gas ex-change over the ocean. J Geophy Res: Oceans (1978-2012), 97(C5): 7373-7382
    Weiss R F. 1981. Determinations of carbon dioxide and methane by dual catalyst flame ionization chromatography and nitrous ox-ide by electron capture chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci, 19(12): 611-616
    Weller D I, Law C S, Marriner A, et al. 2013. Temporal variation of dis-solved methane in a subtropical mesoscale eddy during a phytoplankton bloom in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Prog Oceanogr, 116: 193-206
    Wiesenburg D A, Guinasso N L Jr. 1979. Equilibrium solubilities of methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen in water and sea water. J Chem Eng Data, 24(4): 356-360
    Zhang Guiling, Zhang Jing, Kang Yubao, et al. 2004. Distributions and fluxes of methane in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea in spring. J Geophys Res, 109(C7): 101-111
    Zhang Guiling, Zhang Jing, Liu Sumei, et al. 2008a. Methane in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and its adjacent marine area: riverine input, sediment release and atmospheric fluxes. Biogeochem, 91(1): 71-84
    Zhang Guiling, Zhang Jing, Ren Jingling, et al. 2008b. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide in the North East China Sea in summer. Mar Chem, 110(1-2): 42-55
    Zhao Yuchuan. 2011. Distributions and fluxes of methane and ni-trous oxide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) and its Estuary (in Chinese) [dissertation]. Qingdao: Ocean University of China, 1-93
  • 加载中

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Article Metrics

    Article views (1379) PDF downloads(1423) Cited by()
    Proportional views
    Related

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return