Simulated Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait across the SODA3 products

Tengfei Xu Zexun Wei Haifeng Zhao Shen Guan Shujiang Li Guanlin Wang Fei Teng Yongcui Zhang Jing Wang

Tengfei Xu, Zexun Wei, Haifeng Zhao, Shen Guan, Shujiang Li, Guanlin Wang, Fei Teng, Yongcui Zhang, Jing Wang. Simulated Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait across the SODA3 products[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2186-6
Citation: Tengfei Xu, Zexun Wei, Haifeng Zhao, Shen Guan, Shujiang Li, Guanlin Wang, Fei Teng, Yongcui Zhang, Jing Wang. Simulated Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait across the SODA3 products[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2186-6

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2186-6

Simulated Indonesian Throughflow in Makassar Strait across the SODA3 products

Funds: The project supported by Laoshan Laboratory under contract No. LSKJ202202700; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 42076023, 42076024 and 41876027; the Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction II Project under contract No. GASI-01-ATP-STwin.
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  • Figure  1.  The sketch map of the Indonesian Throughflow (solid arrows) and the South China Sea branch (dashed arrows) of the Pacific to Indian Ocean Throughflow (following Fang et al., 2010) (a), with red stars in donating the subsurface mooring stations of Mak-West (2°51.9′S, 118°27.3′E) and Mak-East (2°51.5′S, 118°37.7′E) during the INSTANT and MITF periods, and the integration route for the wind stress in the Island Rule calculation (red lines) (b).

    Figure  2.  The multi-dataset ensemble means of SODA3 (solid lines) and observed (dashed lines) velocity and temperature/salinity profiles in the Makassar Strait. a. Along-strati velocity; b. temperature (red lines) and salinity (blue lines). The error-bars indicate the standard deviation of the SODA3 products.

    Figure  3.  T-S diagram in the Makassar Strait. a. SODA3.3.0, b. SODA3.3.1, c. SODA3.3.2, d. SODA3.4.1, e. SODA3.4.2, f. SODA3.6.1, g. SODA3.7.2, h. SODA3.11.2, and i. SODA3.12.2.

    Figure  4.  The annual cycle of the along strait velocity in the Makassar Strait (left column) and the differences between the SODA3 and observation (right column). a. Observation and differences between SODA3 ensemble mean and observation; b–j. different SODA3 ensemble members as listed in Table 1.

    Figure  5.  The along strait velocity anomalies in the Makassar Strait. a. Observation, b. SODA3.3.0, c SODA3.3.1, d. SODA3.3.2, e. SODA3.4.1, f. SODA3.4.2, g. SODA3.6.1, h. SODA3.7.2, i. SODA3.11.2, and j. SODA3.12.2.

    Figure  6.  Annual mean transport of volume (a), heat (b), and freshwater (c) through the upper 700 m of the Makassar Strait in observations and SODA3 ensemble members. The cyan and pink bars in a are derived from the Island Rule and along strait velocity, respectively. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the monthly transport time series.

    Figure  7.  Seasonal cycle of the volume (a), heat (b), and freshwater (c) transport per unit depth, and depth integrated volume (d), heat (e), and freshwater (f) transport in the upper 700 m through the Makassar Strait in SODA3 datasets. Shadings and contours in the left panels indicate the ensemble means and cross-ensemble member standard deviations of the SODA3 datasets. Solid black and red lines in d are calculated from the along strait velocity and Islands Rule based on SODA3 dataset, and blue line are from along strait velocity in observation. Error bars in d–f are the cross-ensemble member standard deviations of the SODA3 datasets. Unit: 1 Sv=10 6m3/s, 1 PW=1015 W, 1 mSv=10–3 Sv.

    Figure  8.  Interannual anomalies of the volume (a), heat (b), and freshwater (c) transport per unit depth through the Makassar Strait in SODA3 datasets. Shadings and contours indicate the ensemble means and cross-ensemble member standard deviations of the SODA3 datasets. Unit: 1 Sv=10 6m3/s, 1 PW=1015 W, 1 mSv=10-3 Sv.

    Figure  9.  Correlation analysis between the Makassar Strait volume transport and the Indo-Pacific climate modes. a. Interannual anomaly of volume transport through the Makassar Strait (magenta), the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) (cyan) and Niño3.4 index (blue). b and c. lag correlations of the Makassar Strait volume transport anomaly with Niño3.4 and DMI, with error bars indicate the cross-ensemble member standard deviations of the SODA3 datasets. The horizontal lines in b and c indicate the 95% significance level. Unit: 1 Sv=106 m3/s.

    Figure  10.  Correlation analysis between the Makassar Strait heat transport and the Indo-Pacific climate modes. a. Interannual anomaly of heat transport through the Makassar Strait (magenta), the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) (cyan) and Niño3.4 index (blue). b and c. Lag correlations of the Makassar Strait heat transport anomaly with Niño3.4 and DMI, with error bars indicate the cross-ensemble member standard deviations of the SODA3 datasets. The horizontal lines in b and c indicate the 95% significance level. Unit: 1 PW=1015 W.

    Figure  11.  Correlation analysis between the Makassar Strait freshwater transport and the Indo-Pacific climate modes. a. Interannual anomaly of freshwater transport through the Makassar Strait (magenta), the Dipole Mode Index (DMI) (cyan) and Niño3.4 index (blue). Lag correlations of the Makassar Strait freshwater transport anomaly with Niño3.4 and DMI, with error bars indicate the cross-ensemble member standard deviations of the SODA3 datasets. The horizontal lines in b and c indicate the 95% significance level. Unit: 1 mSv=103 m3/s.

    Figure  12.  Climatological mean state (a), velocity anomaly induced variation (b), temperature anomaly induced variation (c), and higher-order terms of the total heat transport through the Makassar Strait (d). Unit: 1 TW=1012 W.

    Figure  13.  Climatological mean state (a), velocity anomaly induced variation (b), salinity anomaly induced variation (c), and higher-order terms of the total freshwater transport (d) through the Makassar Strait. Unit: 1 mSv=103 m3/s.

    Figure  14.  Annual mean transport of volume (a), heat (b), and freshwater (c) in the upper 700 m of the Makassar Strait in observations and ocean reanalysis products. Error bars indicate the standard deviation of the monthly transport time series.

    Figure  15.  Seasonal cycle of the depth integrated transport of volume (a), heat (b), and freshwater (c) in the upper 700 m of the Makassar Strait in observations and ocean reanalysis products.

    Table  1.   Details of the SODA3 reanalysis products used in the present study

    No.DatasetAssimilationForcingForcing resolutionBulk formulaPeriod
    1SODA3.3.0noMERRA2~0.5°×0.625°Large-Yeager1980–2015
    2SODA3.3.1OIMERRA2~0.5°×0.625°Large-Yeager1980–2015
    3SODA3.3.2OIMERRA2~0.5°×0.625°COARE41980–2017
    4SODA3.4.1OIERA-Interim~80 km (T255)Large-Yeager1980–2016
    5SODA3.4.2OIERA-Interim~80 km (T255)COARE41980–2017
    6SODA3.6.1OICOREv21°×1°Large-Yeager1980–2009
    7SODA3.7.2OIJRA-55~55 km (TL319)COARE41980–2016
    8SODA3.11.2OIDFS5.2~0.7°×0.625°COARE41980–2015
    9SODA3.12.2OIJRA-55DO~55 km (TL319)COARE41980–2016
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