Mixed layer warming by the barrier layer in the southeastern Indian Ocean

Kaiyue Wang Yisen Zhong Meng Zhou

Kaiyue Wang, Yisen Zhong, Meng Zhou. Mixed layer warming by the barrier layer in the southeastern Indian Ocean[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2151-4
Citation: Kaiyue Wang, Yisen Zhong, Meng Zhou. Mixed layer warming by the barrier layer in the southeastern Indian Ocean[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2151-4

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2151-4

Mixed layer warming by the barrier layer in the southeastern Indian Ocean

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 42276003; the Oceanic Interdisciplinary Program of Shanghai Jiao Tong University under contract No. SL2021MS021; the Shanghai Frontiers Science Center of Polar Science (SCOPS).
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  • Figure  1.  The BLT distribution in the southeastern Indian Ocean from May to October. The black box indicates the BL area for the subsequent analysis.

    Figure  2.  The EHF seasonal variation from May to October calculated by K05 method (exact) and different threshold methods listed in Table 1.

    Figure  3.  Spatial distributions of the EHFs from May to October using K05 method and the 20 m depth difference threshold method.

    Figure  4.  Seasonal EHF warming calculated from daily (black) and monthly (red) SOSE data (a) and Comparison between the daily EHF warming (blue) and the surface net heat flux (SNHF) cooling (red) (b). The black dashed line represents the ratio between the EHF and SNHF.

    Figure  5.  The temperature difference between the mixed layer average and the mixed layer base (a); the daily and monthly relative variation of the mixed layer depth (b).

    Figure  7.  Annual variation of EHF deduced from the daily and monthly SOSE data (a) and the annual observation-based SAM index obtained from https://legacy.bas.ac.uk/met/gjma/sam.html (b).

    Figure  6.  Interannual variation of the EHF anomaly from May to October.

    Table  1.   The EHF calculations based on various definitions

    No. Definition of $ \Delta \mathit{T} $ Reference
    1 $ \Delta T=1$℃ Qiu and Kelly (1993)
    2 $ \Delta T=0.75 $℃ Swenson and Hansen (1999)
    3 $ \Delta T=0.2 $℃ Dong and Kelly (2004)
    4 $ \Delta T={T}_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{l}}-{T}_{5} $ Qu (2001); Girishkumar et al. (2013)
    5 $ \Delta T={T}_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{l}}-{T}_{10} $ Qu (2003); Close and Goosse (2013)
    6 $ \Delta T={T}_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{l}}-{T}_{20} $ Yasuda et al. (2000); McPhaden (2002)
    Note: $ {T}_{N} $ is the temperature at the depth of N meter below the mixed layer base.
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