A case study of continental shelf waves in the northwestern South China Sea induced by winter storms in 2021

Junyi Li Chen Zhou Min Li Quanan Zheng Mingming Li Lingling Xie

Junyi Li, Chen Zhou, Min Li, Quanan Zheng, Mingming Li, Lingling Xie. A case study of continental shelf waves in the northwestern South China Sea induced by winter storms in 2021[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2150-5
Citation: Junyi Li, Chen Zhou, Min Li, Quanan Zheng, Mingming Li, Lingling Xie. A case study of continental shelf waves in the northwestern South China Sea induced by winter storms in 2021[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2150-5

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2150-5

A case study of continental shelf waves in the northwestern South China Sea induced by winter storms in 2021

Funds: The National Key R&D Program of China under contract No. 2022YFC3104805; the Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 42276019, 41706025 and 41976200; the Innovation Team Plan for Universities in Guangdong Province under contract No. 2019KCXTF021; the First-class Discipline Plan of Guangdong Province under contract Nos 080503032101 and 231420003; the Program for Scientific Research Start-up Funds of Guangdong Ocean University contract No. 060302032106; the Open Fund Project of Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Information Technology (2019), Ministry of Natural Resources.
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  • Figure  1.  Study area and locations of observation stations. Blue dots are locations of tidal gauge stations of HK, ZP and QL. Red square is the location of mooring station MO. Red dots represent cruise observation section SE. Black lines represent sea surface wind observation sections W1, W2, W3 and W4. Coordinate system x-o-y is set as x-axis perpendicular to the coastline seaward positive and y-axis parallel to the coastline leftward positive. θ (= 35o) is the y-axis direction referring to true north.

    Figure  2.  Time series DSLA data at tidal gauge stations: a. HK, b. ZP, c. MO and d. QL.

    Figure  3.  Velocity components derived from mooring observed data: a. along-shelf and b. cross-shelf current components, c. barotropic current, d. baroclinic along-shelf and e. cross-shelf current components.

    Figure  4.  Cruise observed temperature (a), salinity (b) and squared buoyancy frequency (c) along section SE. Red dots in a indicates stations.

    Figure  5.  Time series of sea surface wind component derived from CMEMS wind product. a. Along-shelf wind and b. cross-shelf wind at sections W1 (red curve), W2 (green curve), W3 (blue curve) and W4 (black curve).

    Figure  6.  Power spectral density (PSD) of observation data. PSD of DSLA at stations HK (red), ZP (green), MO (blue), and that of barotropic current of cross-shelf component (magenta) and along-shelf component (cyan) (a). Green and red dashed lines are the 5% significance level against red noise for DSLA at HK and ZP, respectively. PSD of de-tided baroclinic current of cross-shelf (b) and along-shelf components (c). Black dashed lines represent three frequency bands 0.0177 h−1, 0.0106 h−1 and 0.0056 h−1. Blue dashed line indicates the inertial frequency band.

    Figure  7.  Wavelet transforms of DSLA at stations. a. ZP and b. MO, c. along-shelf and d. cross-shelf components of barotropic (BT) current, e. along-shelf and f. cross-shelf components of baroclinic (BC) current at the depth of 14 m. The color dashed lines with arrows point out events and spectral bands. The thick black lines are the 5% significance level against red noise.

    Figure  8.  Time series of bandpass DSLA at stations HK, ZP, MO and QL with periods of 56 h (a), 94 h (b) and 180 h (c)derived from 4-order Butterworth filter. Dashed lines with shadow point out E1 and E2. Dashed black curves and arrow indicate the propagation of signals in DSLA. A 4-order Butterworth bandpass filter with frequency cutoffs (−3 dB) at 0.34 d−1 and 0.60 d−1 for 56 h period band, 0.20 d−1 and 0.30 d−1 for 94 h period band, 0.11 d−1 and 0.16 d−1 for 180 h period band.

    Figure  9.  XWT of DSLA for station pairs: a. HK–ZP and b. ZP–QL. The thick black lines are the 5% significance level against red noise. The thin black lines show the cone of influence (COI) The arrows show the relative phase relationship between two time series with in-phase (anti-phase, leading and lagging) pointing right (left, down and up). Color codes are normalized power spectra. The magenta dashed lines with arrows point out signal events.

    Figure  10.  Comparison of dispersion relation derived from this study with the Kelvin mode and the lowest mode of CSW (a); arbitrary amplitude of sea level in cross-shelf direction. the amplitude of sea level calculated from the toolbox (blue curve) and that of Kelvin mode (black curve) (b), arbitrary along-shelf velocity component in cross-shelf direction (c), and mean depth profile between ZP and MO (d). The data points in a are calculated from XWT of DSLA for station pairs. For a, theoretical dispersion relations are derived from the mean depth profile (blue curve) as shown in (d). Black curve in d represent the idealized depth profile.

    Figure  11.  XWT of along-shelf velocity component of SSW for section pairs (a) W1–W2 and (b)W2–W3. The thick line is the 5% significance level against red noise. The thin line shows the cone of influence (COI). The arrows show the relative phase relationship between two time series with in-phase (anti-phase, leading and lagging) pointing right (left, down and up). Color codes are normalized power spectra. The blue lines with arrows point out CSW events.

    Figure  12.  XWT of along-shelf wind component at section W3 with cross-shelf (a) and along-shelf (b) velocities measured by mooring station MO. The thick line is the 5% significance level against red noise. The thin line shows the cone of influence (COI). The arrows show the relative phase relationship between two time series with in-phase (anti-phase, leading and lagging) pointing right (left, down and up). Color codes are normalized power spectra. The blue dashed lines with arrows point out CSW events.

    Figure  13.  Sketch of the wind-driven sea surface fluctuation and Ekman transport over the continental shelf.

    Figure  14.  Phase lag between sea surface fluctuation and along-shelf wind from Fig. 10a (a); comparison of the DSLA at station ZP (red curve) with amplitude of sea surface fluctuation with the fixed phase of π/4 (blue curve), and amplitude of sea surface fluctuation (green curve) calculated with the phase lag in a (b).

    Figure  15.  Bandpass cross-shelf current (a), along-shelf current (b) distribution with a central period of 90 h, and bandpass cross-shelf current (c) and along-shelf current (d) distribution with a central period of 190 h.

    Table  1.   XWT of DSLA at different station pairs

    Stations Distance /km Event Period/h Time lag/h Phase speed/(m∙s-1)
    HK—ZP 225 E1-1 56 4.6 ± 0.5 13.6 ± 1.6
    E1-2 119 9.1 ± 3.8 6.9 ± 4.9
    E2-1 91 3.3 ± 0.7 18.9 ± 5.1
    E2-2 181 4.3 ± 1.1 14.5 ± 5.0
    ZP—QL 174 E1-1 56 5.9 ± 0.7 8.2 ± 1.1
    E1-2 119 2.9 ± 1.0 16.7 ± 8.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   XWT of along-shelf wind at different station pairs

    StationDistance /kmEventsPeriod/hTime lag/hPhase speed/(m∙s-1)
    W1–W2225E1-156–2.3±0.2–27.2±2.1
    E1-21193.6±1.217.4±4.4
    E2-191–3.9±0.5–16.0±1.8
    E2-21813.3±0.118.9±0.5
    W2–W373E1-156–0.2± 0.4–101.4±67.6
    E1-21193.0±0.46.8±0.8
    E2-1910.7±0.529.0±12.1
    E2-21813.1±0.16.5±0.2
    下载: 导出CSV
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