The influence of bioturbation on sandy reservoirs: the delta front sand of the lower Zhujiang Formation, Baiyun Depression, Zhujiang River Mouth Basin

Zhifeng Xing Wei Wu Juncheng Liu Yongan Qi Wei Zheng

Zhifeng Xing, Wei Wu, Juncheng Liu, Yongan Qi, Wei Zheng. The influence of bioturbation on sandy reservoirs: the delta front sand of the lower Zhujiang Formation, Baiyun Depression, Zhujiang River Mouth Basin[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(9): 27-43. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2116-z
Citation: Zhifeng Xing, Wei Wu, Juncheng Liu, Yongan Qi, Wei Zheng. The influence of bioturbation on sandy reservoirs: the delta front sand of the lower Zhujiang Formation, Baiyun Depression, Zhujiang River Mouth Basin[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(9): 27-43. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2116-z

doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2116-z

The influence of bioturbation on sandy reservoirs: the delta front sand of the lower Zhujiang Formation, Baiyun Depression, Zhujiang River Mouth Basin

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41872112 and 42077410; the Key Research Project of Higher Education Institutions in Henan University under contract No. 20A170010; the Program for Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) of Henan Polytechnic University under contract No. T2022-05; the Foundation of Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Depositional Mineralization and Sedimentary Mineral under contract No. DMSM2018027.
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  • Figure  1.  Study area and location map. a. Geomorphologic features of the South China Sea; b. internal tectonic units of the Zhujiang River Mouth Basin; c. internal structure of Baiyun Depression.

    Figure  2.  Schematic summary of the depositional evolution, sequence stratigraphy framework, and main tectonic movements in the Zhujiang River Mouth Basin during the Cenozoic period (modified from Lin et al. (2018a), SQhj3: Sequence Hangjiang Fm. 3; SQzj4: Sequence Zhujiang Fm. 4; SQzh2: Sequence Zhuhai Fm. 2.

    Figure  3.  Micrograph of sandstone sample. a–d. Micrograph of the sandstone sample at depth of 3 735.03 m; a. Thin section image, the sample is a medium-fine grained sandstone, where the rock is compact; b. SEM image, overall, the intergranular pores are 30–100 μm with good connectivity; c. SEM image, feldspar is altered into flaky mica (m) and solution pores (sp); d. SEM image, quartz is dissolved into dissolution pits (dp) mixed with lamellar illite/smectite (i/s) layer. e–h. Micrograph of the sandstone sample at depth of 3 742.28 m; e. Thin section image, the sample is a medium-grained sandstone, where the rock is compact; f. SEM image, overall, the intergranular pores are 20–60 μm with good connectivity; g. SEM image, intergranular lamellar illite/smectite (i/s) mixed layer and kaolinite (k); h. SEM image, intergranular flaky illite (i), kaolinite (k), quartz overgrow (qo) to Level III.

    Figure  4.  Ternary plot of sandstone type of the shelf margin delta front studied sandstones.Q: quartz; F: feldspar; R: rock fragments.

    Figure  5.  Sedimentation and bioturbation profile of Well PY-X. CMB: Channel Mouth Bar; SDC: Subaqueous Distributary Channel; CC: Crevasse Channel; AC: Abandoned Channel; FSS: Frontal Sheet Sand; SL: Subaqueous Levee; GR: gamma ray log.

    Figure  6.  Sedimentary characteristics of petrofacies. a–d. Sedimentary characteristics of subaqueous distributary channel. a. 3 735.33–3 735.50 m, fine-, medium-, to coarse-grained sandstone with tabular cross-bedding in the upper part. Conichnus (Co), Ophiomorpha (Op), and escape trace (e.t.) are contained near the scour surface. b. 3 742.83–3 743.00 m, medium- to coarse-grained massive sandstone with Thalassinoides (Th). c. 3 746.00–3 746.16 m, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone with massive bedding with Diplocraterion (Di), Ophiomorpha (Op), Skolithos (Sk), and Thalassinoides (Th). d. 3 750.31–3 750.45 m, fine-, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, with parallel bedding in the upper part and small cross-bedding in the lower part. e–h. Sedimentary characteristics of the channel mouth bar. e. 3 732.86–3 733.04 m, fine- to medium-grained sandstone with fine gravel with Ophiomorpha (Op), Palaeophycus (Pa), andThalassinoides (Th). f. 3 745.54–3 745.68 m, fine-grained sandstone at the bottom, muddy stripe thereon, and scour surface at the top. g. 3 746.81–3 746.93 m, fine- to medium-grained sandstone with Ophiomorpha (Op), Palaeophycus (Pa), Rhizocorallium (Rh), and Skolithos (Sk). h. 3 746.99–3 747.20 m, fine-grained sandstone with Skolithos (Sk) and Thalassinoides (Th) and inverse graded bedding. i. Sedimentary characteristics of the abandoned channel and crevasse channel, 3 737.39–3 737.63 m; the bottom is gray coarse-grained sandstone with fine gravel of the crevasse channel, with discontinuous muddy lamination and escape trace (e.t.). Above it is the development of dark gray mudstone with Planolites (Pl) and unidentified dwelling burrows (dw) filled with medium- to coarse-grained sand. The top is a thin layer of silty sandstone in the abandoned channel with ripple cross lamination and Thalassinoides (Th) filled with medium-grained sand. j. Sedimentary characteristics of the frontal sheet sand, 3 739.30–3 739.45 m, fine- to medium-grained sandstone with inverse graded bedding and Ophiomorpha (Op). k. Frontal sheet sand, 3 739.56–3 739.68 m, contained Ophiomorpha (Op) and Thalassinoides (Th). l. Sedimentary characteristics of the subaqueous levee, 3 753.51–3 753.67 m, the lower is siltstone and fine-grained sandstone with muddy laminae and Ophiomorpha (Op), Thalassinoides (Th), escape trace (e.t.), the upper is fine- to medium-grained sandstone.

    Figure  7.  Model of shelf margin delta front subfacies.

    Figure  8.  Diagram of core porosity, permeability, and bioturbation quantity in Well PY-X; a. Porosity and permeability crossplot; b. curves of porosity and permeability with depth; c. curves of porosity and bioturbation quantity with depth.

    Figure  9.  Relationship between bioturbation quantity and porosity. a. Relationship between bioturbation quantity and porosity in Well PY-X; b. relationship between bioturbation quantity and porosity of fine-grained sandstone samples; c. relationship between bioturbation quantity and porosity of medium-grained sandstone samples; d. relationship between bioturbation quantity and porosity of coarse-grained sandstone samples.

    Figure  10.  Particle size distribution of samples in Well PY-X. Non-bioturbated (NBT) or weakly bioturbated (WBT) samples (a, d, g); moderately bioturbated (MBT) samples (b, e, h); prevasively bioturbated (PBT) samples (c, f).

    Figure  11.  Thin-sectioned characteristics of sandstone samples with NBT or WBT. a. 3 736.03 m, medium- to fine-grained sandstone, medium sorting degree, point-line contact, contact-porous cementation type. Particles are mainly fine-grained sands, and some are medium- and very fine-grained sands. The pores are moderately developed and are distributed uniformly. The secondary is the main type, including secondary inter-granular pores (sep), secondary intra-granular pores (sap), and mold pores. The pore shape is irregular and the size is generally between 0.10 mm and 0.25 mm. The shape of the primary intergranular pores is mainly triangular and irregular, and the size is generally between 0.05 mm and 0.15 mm. Kaolinite (k) and quartz overgrow (qo) can be observed. b. 3 750.78 m, medium- to fine-grained sandstone, medium sorting degree, point-line contact, contact-porous cementation type. Particles are mainly medium-grained sand, some are coarse-grained sand and a small amount of fine-grained sand. The pores are mainly secondary pores with the inhomogeneous distribution. Their types are mainly secondary intergranular (sep) and granular dissolving pores with irregular shapes that have a general size of 0.15 mm and 0.40 mm. Primary intergranular pores (pep) are scarce. Kaolinite (k) and quartz overgrow (qo) can be observed. c. 3 756.28 m, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, medium to a poor sorting degree, point-line contact, contact-porous cementation type. Particles are mainly medium- and coarse-grained sand. The pores are generally well developed. The pores are mainly secondary pores, including mold pores and secondary intergranular pores (sep). The pore shape is mainly irregular, and the size is generally between 0.15–0.60 mm. The shape of the primary intergranular pores (pep) is mainly triangular and irregular, and the size is generally 0.10–0.20 mm. Kaolinite (k) and quartz overgrow (qo) can be observed.

    Figure  12.  Thin-sectioned characteristics of sandstone samples with MBT. a. 3 735.53 m, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, poor to medium sorting degree, point-line contact, and contact-pore cementation type. The amount of medium-grained sand particles is slightly higher than that of coarse-grained sand particles and small amounts of fine-grained sand particles also occur. The pores are moderately developed and uniformly distributed. The secondary pores, including mold pores (mp) and secondary intergranular pores (sep), represents the most common kind of pore. The shape of the secondary intergranular pores is irregular and their size is generally between 0.10–0.25 mm. Kaolinite (k) and quartz overgrow (qo) can be observed. b. 3 743.78 m, medium- to coarse-grained sandstone, poor to medium sorting degree, point-line contact, porous cementation type. The amount of medium-grained sands particles is slightly higher than that of coarse-grained sand particles, and a small amount of fine-grained sand praticles can also be observed. The pores, mainly secondary pores, are poorly developed and uniformly distributed, such as secondary intergranular pores (sep). The shape is irregular, and the size is generally between 0.10–0.30 mm. The primary pores are mainly intergranular pores with poor connectivity. Kaolinite (k) can be observed. c. 3 746.80 m, medium- to fine-grained sandstone, poor to medium sorting degree, concavo-convex contact, and porous cementation type. The amount of fine-grained sand particles is slightly higher than that of medium-grained sand particles, and a small amount of coarse-grained sand particles can also be observed. Microcracks (mc) can occasionally be observed with widths of 0.03–0.05 mm.

    Figure  13.  Thin-sectioned characteristics of sand samples with severe bioturbation from various ichnogenus. a. 3 732.07 m, medium- to fine-grained sandstone, poor to medium sorting degree, point-line contact, and porous cementation type. Fragment particles are mainly silty and fine-grained sands, with fewer medium-grained particles. The pores are poorly developed, distributed in homogeneously, and are mainly secondary dissolved pores with poor connectivity. Quartz overgrow (qo) can be observed. b. 3 732.53 m, medium- to fine-grained sandstone, poor sorting degree, point-line contact, and porous cementation type. Particles are contained in all grades, including fine-, medium-, and coarse-grained. Pores are poorly developed and granular and intergranular dissolved pores can occasionally be observed with poor connectivity. Kaolinite (k) and quartz overgrow (qo) can be observed. c. 3 747.66 m, fine-grained sandstone, medium to a good sorting degree, point-line contact, porous cementation type. Particles are mainly fine-grained with a small amount of medium-grained sands. The pores are poorly developed. Zircon (Zr) can occasionally be observed.

    Figure  14.  Base level change and bioturbation effect on reservoir properties. Base level decline (a, b); base level rise (c, d); the model of the bioturbation effect on reservoir properties (e, f, g).

    Table  1.   Bioturbated classification scheme

    BI Taylor and Goldring (1993) Droser and Bottjer (1986) This research scheme (modified from
    Droser and Bottjer (1986))
    Bioturbated
    quantity/%
    Classification Bioturbated
    quantity/%
    Classification Bioturbated
    quantity/%
    Classification
    0 0 no-bioturbation 0 non-bioturbation 0 non-bioturbation
    1 1–4 sparse bioturbation 0–10 discrete, isolated trace fossils 1–20 weakly bioturbated, massive,
    parallel and tabular cross bedding
    distinct boundaries and low
    discrete traces density
    2 5–30 low bioturbation
    10–40 burrows are generally isolated,
    but locally overlap
    21–60 moderately bioturbated, massive
    and parallel bedding with sharp
    boundaries and rare discrete
    traces overlap
    3
    31–60
    moderate bioturbation
    40–60 burrows overlap and are not
    always well defined
    4 60–90 high bioturbation 60–100 bedding is completely disturbed,
    but burrows are still discrete in
    places and the fabric is not mixed
    61–100 pervasively bioturbated, massive and inverse graded structures with indistinct to completely disturbed bedding boundaries, high trace density with common overlap to repeated overprinting
    5 91–99 intense bioturbation
    6 100 complete bioturbation 100 bedding is nearly or
    totally homogenized
    Note: BI: bioturbation index.
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-08
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-09-14
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-01

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