Sedimentary evolution and control factors of the Rizhao Canyons in the Zhongjiannan Basin, western South China Sea

Meijing Sun Yongjian Yao Weidong Luo Jie Liu Xiaosan Hu Jiao Zhou Dong Ju Ziying Xu

Meijing Sun, Yongjian Yao, Weidong Luo, Jie Liu, Xiaosan Hu, Jiao Zhou, Dong Ju, Ziying Xu. Sedimentary evolution and control factors of the Rizhao Canyons in the Zhongjiannan Basin, western South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(9): 16-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2114-1
Citation: Meijing Sun, Yongjian Yao, Weidong Luo, Jie Liu, Xiaosan Hu, Jiao Zhou, Dong Ju, Ziying Xu. Sedimentary evolution and control factors of the Rizhao Canyons in the Zhongjiannan Basin, western South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 2023, 42(9): 16-26. doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2114-1

doi: 10.1007/s13131-022-2114-1

Sedimentary evolution and control factors of the Rizhao Canyons in the Zhongjiannan Basin, western South China Sea

Funds: The Major Special Project of Guangdong Provincial Laboratory of Southern Marine Science and Engineering (Guangzhou) under contract No. GML2019ZD0207; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. U20A20100; the China Geological Survey Project under contract Nos DD20221712, DD20221719 and DD20191002.
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  • Figure  1.  Geographical location of Zhongjiannan Basin study area (a) and bathymetric contour map of the study area and its periphery (b) (Yang et al., 2015).

    Figure  2.  Sequence stratigraphic division in the seismic line L5 passing through drilling 121-CM-1X Well, according to Fyhn et al. (2009) (a) and sequence stratigraphic division in the seismic survey line L1 in the study area (b). According to the calibration of 121-CM-1X drilling data, Sequence A is Quaternary, Sequence B is Pliocene, and Sequence C is Pliocene. The locations of the seismic line L5 and L1 are marked on Fig. 1b.

    Figure  3.  Topographic slope map of Rizhao submarine canyon (a) and sketch of canyon shape (b) (the location is shown in Fig. 1b).

    Figure  4.  Seismic profile and interpretation of the canyon C4, upper part (a) and middle part (b) (profile location is shown in Figs 1b and 2).

    Figure  5.  Seismic profile and interpretation of the canyons C5, C6, and main canyon, middle part of C5 on seismic profile L1 (a), middle part of C5 on seismic profile L′3 (b), upper part of C6 on seismic profile L′3 (c) and the main canyon on seismic profile L′3 (d) (profile location is shown in Figs 1b and 2).

    Figure  6.  Seismic line L1 across the lower section of canyons C6–C8 (a), local topographic map of canyons area (b), seismic survey line L2 across the downstream of canyons C1–C3 and the mouth (c) and seismic line L′4 across the downstream of the canyons and the mouth (d) (see Fig. 1b for profile location).

    Figure  7.  The interpretation of seismic profile L6 across the continental shelf and the upper slope in the west of the study areas (modified from Fyhn et al. (2009); location of lines is shown in Fig. 1b).

    Figure  8.  Sedimentary development pattern of the Rizhao Canyons.

    Table  1.   Genetic classification of main canyons in the South China Sea

    Classification basisMajor characteristicsTypical example
    Geomorphic morphological characteristicsLarge-scale canyon dominated by a main canyon with less developed branch canyonsTaitung Canyon, Taiwan Canyon, Dongsha Canyon, Zhujiang River Estuary Canyon, Penxi Canyos
    Composed of several small and short canyonsPenghu Canyons, Yitong Canyons, Xishabei Canyons
    It is composed of the main canyon and multiple branch canyonsRizhao Canyons
    Development location, genesisThe continental erosion canyon is generally related to onshore rivers or deltasTaiwan Shoal submarine canyon, Zhujiang River Estuary Canyon, Dongsha Canyon
    The head is developed only in the continental slope area, usually related to the turbidity current events, gravity-flow transport, traceable slump, and bottom currentShenhu Canyons,
    Rizhao Canyons
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    Table  2.   Typical seismic facies analysis and corresponding sedimentary facies interpretation of canyon system

    Serial No.Line No.Seismic profileSeismic reflection characteristicsSedimentary faciesOrigin
    aL1low continuous reflection and chaotic reflectiongravity flow depositgravity flow
    bL1parallel reflectionchannel-fill faciesturbidity current
    cL1medium-high continuous and two-way onlap reflection
    dL' 3medium continuous and two-way onlap reflection
    eL' 3medium-low continuous reflection
    fL' 3medium-high continuous onlap reflectionchannel migration gravity flow
    gL1medium continuous reflectionslump massgravity flow
    hL1medium continuous reflection in the upper part,
    chaotic reflection in the lower part
    slump mass, sliding mass
    chaotic reflection filling in the channelchannel-fill faciesturbidity current
    iL' 4local strong amplitude continuous-low
    continuous reflection
    deep water fan
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-03
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-09-12
  • 刊出日期:  2023-09-01