Responses of nutrient biogeochemistry and nitrogen cycle to seasonal upwelling in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island

Nan Zhou Sumei Liu Guodong Song Yunyan Zhang Lingyan Wang Xiaoyan Ning

Nan Zhou, Sumei Liu, Guodong Song, Yunyan Zhang, Lingyan Wang, Xiaoyan Ning. Responses of nutrient biogeochemistry and nitrogen cycle to seasonal upwelling in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1934-8
Citation: Nan Zhou, Sumei Liu, Guodong Song, Yunyan Zhang, Lingyan Wang, Xiaoyan Ning. Responses of nutrient biogeochemistry and nitrogen cycle to seasonal upwelling in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1934-8

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1934-8

Responses of nutrient biogeochemistry and nitrogen cycle to seasonal upwelling in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41376086; the Taishan Scholars Programme of Shandong Province; the Aoshan Talents Program supported by the Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) under contract No. 2015ASTP-OS08.
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  • Figure  1.  The study area and sampling stations in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island in summer 2015 (rhombuses) and autumn 2016 (circles). The biogeochemical sampling stations were colored as blue, and the black ones were only for hydrological sampling. The directions of monsoon (southwest monsoon, SWM; northeast monsoon, NEM) and Guangdong Coastal Current (GCC) during summer and winter were indicated as red and blue arrows, respectively. Four sections in summer and two sections in autumn were marked from northeast to southwest (S1−S4, A1 and A2 colored as red). SCS: South China Sea; ZJB: Zhanjiang Bay; LP: Leizhou Peninsula; QZS: Qiongzhou Strait; LSB: Lingshui Bay; YLB: Yulin Bay.

    Figure  2.  Surface distribution of temperature, salinity, potential density anomaly (σ0), and the mixed layer depth (MLD) in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island in summer and autumn (a); 200 m water depth sectional distribution of temperature, salinity, and σ0 in Section S1 in summer and Section A1 in autumn (b).

    Figure  3.  The temperature–salinity diagram showing isopycnals in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island in summer and autumn (a); the color indicated the water depth. The inside figures with smaller ranges of potential temperature, salinity, and water depth (0–150 m) show the details. Depth profiles for temperature and potential density anomaly (σ0) (b). Dark blue circles were the samples of autumn. Rhombuses were the samples of summer, and green indicated the stations in the nearshore upwelling region and red stood for the offshore background stations. The inside figures were the same as their outside figures only with the water depth above 200 m to show the details. NPTW represents the North Pacific Tropical Water; NPIW, the North Intermediate Water.

    Figure  4.  Surface distribution of nutrients, Chl a, and DO concentrations in coastal waters of the eastern Hainan Island in summer and autumn. Concentration is below the detection limit in the blank area of DIP. We did not get the data of DO in the southern three sections in summer. MChl a: Chl a concentration at the depth of the Chl a maximum layer.

    Figure  5.  The sectional distribution of biogeochemical parameters in the upper 200 m in Sections S1 in summer and A1 in autumn (a); depth profiles of biogeochemical parameters (b). The shapes and colors distinguished the samples as same as those in Fig. 3b. The inside figures were the same as their outside figures only with the water depth above 200 m to show the details.

    Figure  6.  Relationships between DIN and DIP as well as DSi and DIN. The shapes and colors distinguished the samples as same as those in Fig. 3b. The solid line was the regression curve for the whole water depth samples, and the dotted line was the regression curve for samples above and below the center of the North Pacific Tropical Water (~150 m). The slope was marked as the k.

    Figure  7.  Depth profiles for dual-isotopic composition of nitrate (a), Δ(15, 18) and nitrate concentration anomaly (Nʹ) (b).

    Figure  8.  The relationships between the nitrate δ18O and δ15N (a); and between δ15N, δ18O, and 1-f; δ15N, δ18O, and ln[${\rm{NO}}_3^- $] (b). The green and red rhombuses, and blue circles stood for the upwelling and background stations in summer, and all stations in autumn above the North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW). The dotted lines and equations were the linear regressions for samples above the NPTW. The rhombuses and circles with cross inside in a were samples below the NPTW. The slopes in b were regarded as the isotope fractionation factor (ε). The f was the fraction of unassimilated nitrate in the water column.

    Table  1.   Water depth weighted nutrient and Chl a concentrations above 50 m of the upwelling region and its background values, and of stations in autumn in coastal area of the eastern Hainan Island

    DIN/(µmol·L−1)DIP/(µmol·L−1)DSi/(µmol·L−1)Chl a/(μg·L−1)DON/(µmol·L−1)DOP/(µmol·L−1)
    Upwellingaverage1.590.103.880.395.690.13
    SD1.650.091.230.180.280.02
    Backgroundaverage0.080.012.560.095.670.11
    SD0.020.010.540.030.250.02
    Autumnaverage0.160.012.350.115.620.19
    SD0.120.010.330.040.540.01
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