Recent improvements to the physical model of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea Operational Oceanography Forecasting System

Ang Li Xueming Zhu Yunfei Zhang Shihe Ren Miaoyin Zhang Ziqing Zu Hui Wang

Ang Li, Xueming Zhu, Yunfei Zhang, Shihe Ren, Miaoyin Zhang, Ziqing Zu, Hui Wang. Recent improvements to the physical model of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea Operational Oceanography Forecasting System[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1840-0
Citation: Ang Li, Xueming Zhu, Yunfei Zhang, Shihe Ren, Miaoyin Zhang, Ziqing Zu, Hui Wang. Recent improvements to the physical model of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea Operational Oceanography Forecasting System[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1840-0

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1840-0

Recent improvements to the physical model of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea Operational Oceanography Forecasting System

Funds: The National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. Grant 2017YFA0604203; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No.41806003.
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  • Figure  1.  Model domain and bathymetry of the BYEOFS-v2.0.

    Figure  2.  Topography (solid line) and velocity field at 50 m (bule vector) in YS before (a) and after (b) topography revised.

    Figure  3.  Meridional (a, b) and zonal (c, d) velocity across and along 36.15°N section before (a, c) and after (b, d) topography revised.

    Figure  4.  Yellow Sea Warm Current VT through (blue) and maximum velocity of (red) 35°N section in winter before (solid line) and after (dash line) topography revised.

    Figure  5.  Co-tidal charts (both dash lines and color filled for amplitude in cm, solid lines for phase in (°) and referred to 120°E) in and around Taiwan Strait for M2 constituent before (a) and after (b) the BFC adjustment.

    Figure  6.  Monthly RMSE of simulation SST in 2011.

    Figure  7.  Simulation SST error in January (a,b), April (c,d), July (e,f) and October (g,h) of 2011 using direct forcing (left) and bulk_flux (right) modes.

    Figure  8.  The daily mean (solid lines) and yearly mean (dash lines) time series of domain averaged SST RMSE of each test in 2011.

    Figure  9.  Velocity field in the day abnormal outflow appeared used Rad-Nud (left) and Clamped (right) boundary option.

    Figure  10.  Minimum of monthly normal velocity of Tsushima Strait section (34.2°N, 129.48°E–34°N, 129.63°E) using Rad-Nud (red) and Clamped (blue) in eastern boundary condition.

    Figure  11.  Climatology monthly mean VT through TUS using Rad-Nud condition (red), Clamped condition (blue), calculated results using SLA (black, Takikawa and Yoon, 2005), model results (green) of Zheng et al. (2008) and observations using ADCP (cyan) from Takikawa et al., (2005).

    Figure  12.  Time series of monthly mean VT through TUS.

    Figure  13.  Positions of three sections, the TUS (blue line), eastern channel of the TUS (green line), the eastern lateral boundary (red line), 12 buoy observation stations (red circles) and bathymetry (black lines, m) in the BS, the YS, the TUS and southern Japan Sea.

    Figure  14.  Monthly mean VT time series through the TUS (a), eastern channel of the TUS (b), the eastern lateral boundary (c).

    Figure  15.  Normal velocity across the TUS (a, b), eastern channel of the TUS (c, d) and eastern lateral boundary (e, f) in December, 1985 using Rad-Nud (a, c, e) and Clamped (b, d, f) condition at eastern open boundary.

    Figure  16.  Simulated SLA with (left) and without (right) air pressure correction in January (a, b), April (c, d), July (e, f) and October (g, h).

    Figure  17.  Monthly mean air pressure differences between the air pressure at sea surface and the standard air pressure (1013.25 hPa) in January (a), April (b), July (c) and October (d) of 2017.

    Figure  18.  Daily air pressure difference index between the YS and area out of YS (blue), and SLA difference of YS area between before and after air pressure correction considered (red) in 2017.

    Figure  19.  Daily mean VT difference of through 34.5°N section in 2017 between experiments with and without atmospheric pressure correction.

    Figure  20.  The time series of domain averaged RMSE of forecasting SST in 1st to 5th day (black, red, blue, green and cyan, respectively) before (circles) and after (asterisks) system improvement in 2017.

    Table  1.   Absolute mean errors of amplitude (cm) and phase (°) between measured data and simulated results for both before and after model improvements

    Tidal componentsharmonic constantsAbsolute mean error
    beforeafter
    M2Amp/cm11.0 11.2
    Pha/(°)9.87.3
    S2Amp/cm4.44.9
    Pha/(°)8.97.9
    K1Amp/cm3.62.5
    Pha/(°)8.66.3
    O1Amp/cm2.41.8
    Pha/(°)6.56.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Experiment configurations and annual mean RMSE of SST

    TestForcing ModeQcorrectionEnOIAnnual mean RMSE/°C
    1Direct forcing××1.75
    2Direct forcing×1.30
    3Direct forcing×1.16
    4Direct forcing0.98
    5Bulk_flux×1.06
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   RMSE of monthly mean VT through TUS by comparing Clamped and Rad-Nud boundary conditions with different observed data

    Observation typeObservations using ADCP/SvCalculated results using SLA/Svmodel results of Zheng et al. (2008)/Sv
    Clamped0.550.470.27
    Rad-Nud0.820.730.72
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   The annual mean RMSE of forecasting SST at each buoy position before and after system improvement in 5 d (℃)

    1st day2nd day3rd day4th day5th day
    beforeafterbeforeafterbeforeafterbeforeafterbeforeafter
    QF1021.300.991.350.941.380.931.370.921.410.98
    QF1030.880.660.910.690.950.690.910.720.900.72
    QF1040.910.780.940.790.910.740.950.790.890.82
    QF1050.900.730.890.730.920.720.970.840.970.86
    QF106a1.211.131.271.241.221.091.181.281.221.37
    QF107a1.400.851.320.851.260.851.290.801.450.89
    QF1081.100.581.130.641.200.671.130.701.130.74
    QF1091.130.661.080.671.090.701.010.761.090.82
    QF110a1.190.651.200.731.270.681.240.711.200.71
    QF110b1.130.521.120.511.150.541.190.511.200.47
    QF1111.010.631.040.681.090.671.090.651.120.80
    QF1131.101.141.201.141.181.181.251.181.121.18
    Average1.010.781.120.801.140.791.130.821.140.86
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  5.   The annual mean RMSE of forecasting SST before and after system improvement in 5 d (℃)

    Forecast day1st day2nd day3rd day4th day5th day
    Before1.241.251.281.301.29
    After1.001.031.081.111.12
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-01
  • 录用日期:  2020-11-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-12

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