Tracking historical storm records from high-barrier lagoon deposits on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island, China

Liang Zhou Xiaomei Xu Ya Ping Wang Jianjun Jia Yang Yang Gaocong Li Changliang Tong Shu Gao

Liang Zhou, Xiaomei Xu, Ya Ping Wang, Jianjun Jia, Yang Yang, Gaocong Li, Changliang Tong, Shu Gao. Tracking historical storm records from high-barrier lagoon deposits on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1833-z
Citation: Liang Zhou, Xiaomei Xu, Ya Ping Wang, Jianjun Jia, Yang Yang, Gaocong Li, Changliang Tong, Shu Gao. Tracking historical storm records from high-barrier lagoon deposits on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island, China[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1833-z

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1833-z

Tracking historical storm records from high-barrier lagoon deposits on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island, China

Funds: This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41706096 and 41530962; Research Start-up Project of Jiangsu Normal University (19XSRX006); Opening Foundation of Hainan Key Laboratory of Marine Geological Resources and Environment (HNHYDZZYHJKF005); the High-level Talent Program of Basic and Applied Basic Research Programs (Field of Natural Science) in Hainan Province (No. 2019RC349).
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  • Figure  1.  Location of Xincun Lagoon on the southeastern coast of Hainan Island (a). Core site and tidal location in the Xincun Lagoon (b). Surface sample location (c). The inset shows the wind direction rose map along Lingshui Coast (date source: The Compile Committee of China Bay Record, 1999). Ps of major storm that impacted Xincun Lagoon since 1950 AD (d).

    Figure  2.  Activity–depth profiles of 210Pb activity in the sediment cores. The dark triangle represents the total 210Pb activity, while the circle denotes the excess 210Pb activity.

    Figure  3.  XRF-derived bulk Pb concentrations for core XCL-01 (a), and changes of aquaculture production in Lingshui City (data from the Hainan Statistical Yearbook for 1957–2013) (b).

    Figure  4.  Grain size parameters of surface sediment samples (Adopted from Yang et al., 2017)

    Figure  5.  Standard deviation vs grain size diagram for all cores (a), and grain size distribution of storm deposits and non-storm deposits of all cores (b-f).

    Figure  6.  Vertical variations in D90 grain size of cores XCL-01, XC-06, XC-07, XC-08, and XC-03. The red arrows represent storm events and the red dash line represents the age of 1910 CE based on the sedimentation rate of each core. The dashed line represents the background values.

    Figure  7.  Vertical profiles of D90 grain size and ratio of Sr/Fe and Zr/Al for core XCL-01 as well as historical storm records of southeastern Hainan Island for post-1800CE.

    Figure  8.  Measured and simulated tidal water level (B1 site) and significant wave height (B2 site) in Xincun Lagoon in 2017. The pink band represents the Typhoon Doksuri period.

    Figure  9.  Modeled bottom shear stress under combined current-wave action in 2017

    Figure  10.  Conceptual model of mechanisms of coarse-grained sand formation caused by storm impacts within the Xincun Lagoon sequence (Modified from Maio et al., 2016). Conceptualized cross section of the tidal basin showing core locations, beach, and flood delta sands (a). Windblown waves generated by storms further increase the tide level and current speed, resulting in erosion of the flood delta, beach, and shoreface sand. Coarse-grained sand is suspended and transported into the tidal basin it is sorted and deposited on the tidal basin bottom bed (b). increased storm surged water within the tidal basin provides up the conditions for a strong current capable of transporting sand from the flood delta tidal beach down into the tidal basin (c, d).

    Figure  11.  Comparison of sedimentary storm records with historical documents.

    Table  1.   Major storm events impacting Lingshui Coastbetween 1950 and 2014 (; The Compile Committee of China Bay Record, 1999; Ying et al., 2014)

    DateNameMaximum wind/ (m·s–1)Pressure/ hpaCategoryMaximum tidal water level/ m
    Note:“–” means no data
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    Table  2.   Supplementary documented literature of storm events occurring in 1863, 1848, and 1939 CE.

    DateDocumented descriptionLandfall site
    1863On November 21st in 1863 CE, jufeng moved from east to south, buildings were razed.
    On November 27th in 1863 CE, jufeng moved from northwest to southeast, numerous houses were destroyed, thousands of people were drowned by the storm surge, which caused hazards that have never been seen before.
    1848On November 23rd in 1848 CE, a number of buildings and trees were demolished by extraordinarily strong winds.Dingan
    1839On December 7th–18th in 1839 CE, 6 storms and floods occurred continuously, allcrops were drowned and a large number of people lost their home, which contributed to a famine that led to the death of numerous people. In the next two years (1840 and 1841 CE), corps were destroyed again by frequent floods and drought, famine was the result.Dingan, Wenchang
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