Possible triggering relationship of Six Mw > 6 earthquakes in 2018–2019 at Philippine archipelago

Qiu Zhong Yangfan Deng Zhigang Peng Lingyuan Meng

Qiu Zhong, Yangfan Deng, Zhigang Peng, Lingyuan Meng. Possible triggering relationship of Six Mw > 6 earthquakes in 2018–2019 at Philippine archipelago[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1813-3
Citation: Qiu Zhong, Yangfan Deng, Zhigang Peng, Lingyuan Meng. Possible triggering relationship of Six Mw > 6 earthquakes in 2018–2019 at Philippine archipelago[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1813-3

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1813-3

Possible triggering relationship of Six Mw > 6 earthquakes in 2018–2019 at Philippine archipelago

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41704049, 41890813, 91628301 and 41974068; the Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Nos QYZDY-SSW-DQC005 and 133244KYSB20180029; the foundation of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou) under contract No. GML2019ZD0205; the foundation of Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. YIPA2018385; the United States National Science Foundation under contract No. EAR-1736197; the Science Foundation for Earthquake Resilience of China Earthquake Administration under contract No. XH20072.
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  • Figure  1.  The tectonic background (a) and focal mechanisms of earthquakes (b) at Philippines archipelago (PA). The purple lines and circles indicate the GPS velocity and errors, with respect to the Eurasian Plate. The velocity ranges from 4.9 cm/a to 8.5 cm/a (Yu et al., 2013). The main tectonic features are modified from Aurelio et al. (2017), and Wu et al. (2017). The focal mechanism of the six earthquakes and others (1976–2019) are obtained from the GCMT catalog. The red box in a marks the zoom-in region plotted in Fig. 2. LL: Legaspi Lineament; SVPF: Verde Passage Fault-Sibuyan Sea Fault; SC: South China; PSP: Philippine Sea Plate; PP: Pacific Plate.

    Figure  2.  Coulomb stress changes generated by the first event (2018/12/29, Mw 7.0). The source fault model is based on the finite slip model from USGS website (https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000iyta/finite-fault). The Coulomb stress changes are computed at depth of 78 km and 63 km, receiver fault mechanism was set to be the fifth event (a, c, and e: 2019/05/31, Mw 6.1) and the sixth event (b, d, and f: 2019/09/29, Mw 6.2). Solid circles show the local events (Mw ≥ 3.5) with Coulomb stress change $\Delta {\sigma }_{{\rm{c}}}$ ≥ 5 kPa, within different depth range ±10 km.

    Figure  3.  The event distributions and their relationship with Coulomb stress changes of the first event at the regions plotted in Fig. 2. Receiver fault of these local events are set the same as the fifth event (2019/05/31, Mw 6.1). a–b. Accumulated event number (left y-axis) and magnitude distributions (right y-axis) during 2018/07/31 to 2019/06/15, associated with positive Coulomb stress changes (a) and negative Coulomb stress changes (b); c–d. blue and red bars show the histogram of negative and positive Coulomb stress changes respectively; c. histogram of the Mw ≥ 2.5 earthquakes during 2018/12/29 to 2019/05/31; d. Histogram of the Mw ≥ 3.5 earthquakes during 2018/12/29 to 2019/05/31; e. histogram of Mw ≥ 2.5 events during 2018/07/31 to 2018/12/29; and f. histogram of Mw ≥ 3.5 events during 2018/07/31 to 2018/12/29. The numbers indicate the total count during these periods, and only events with stress change ≥ 5 kPa are counted. For example, number 6 in f indicates six events during 2018/12/29 to 2019/05/31 at the region with stress change ≥ 5 kPa. Some events may be missing in the histograms due to the scale of the X-axis.

    Figure  4.  The dynamic stress (in unit of kPa) generated by the event on 2018/12/29 (blue line) and 2019/04/22 (red line). The stress values are marked on the contours. The Regions A, B, C, and D are squares with 1°×1° size, and temporal distribution of seismicity within these regions are further plotted in Fig. 5. The locations of two seismic stations (RM.SZP and IU.DAV) are marked, and the corresponding waveforms are plotted in Fig. 6.

    Figure  5.  The local seismicity at regions A, B, C and D as marked in Fig. 4. The left axis is the accumulated events number and the right axis is the magnitude. The occurrence time of the first five earthquakes is marked as dashed blue lines. The insert map of c shows the detailed seismicity between 2019/04/21 to 2019/04/24 (shaded region).

    Figure  6.  The seismogram, band-passed envelopes (0.5–2.0 Hz, 4–16 Hz) and spectrogram of seismic data recorded at stations IU.DAV (a) and RM.SZP (b). Their corresponding locations are marked in Fig. 4.

    Figure  7.  The slip rate estimated from GPS velocity (a) and the distribution of thrust events listed in the GCMT catalog during 1976/01/01 to 2019/12/31 along the Manila and Philippine slabs (b). The Philippine slab can be divided into three sections (southern, central, and northern) according to the slip rate.

    Figure  8.  The annual and cumulative seismic energy during 1976/01/01 to 2019/12/31 at the southern section of Philippine slab (5.0°–11.5°N) (a), the central section of Philippine slab (11.5°–14.5°N) (b), and the northern section of Philippine slab (14.5°–18.0°N) (c). (d) The annual and cumulative seismic energy at all sections. The detailed division of Philippine slab is marked in Fig. 7.

    Figure  9.  The probability of background seismicity from the space-time ETAS model. a. The background probability of Mw > 6 events along the PA from 1976/01/01 to 2019/12/31 based on the GCMT catalog; b. the events with background probability Pb ≥ 0.5; and c. the duration of six adjacent Mw > 6 events with background probability Pb ≥ 0.5. The probability value represents the lowest one of the 6 adjacent events. The solid line mark the duration of 274 d for the recent six Mw > 6 events. The two arrows indicate the trend of the duration of 6 high probability adjacent events.

    A1.  Coulomb stress changes generated by the first event (2018/12/29, Mw 7.0). The source fault model is based on the finite slip model from USGS website (https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000iyta/finite-fault). The Coulomb stress changes are computed at depth of 50 km, 70 km and 90 km, receiver fault mechanism was set to be the fifth event (a, c, and e. 2019/05/31, Mw 6.1) and the sixth event (b, d, and f. 2019/09/29, Mw 6.2). Solid circles show the local events (Mw ≥ 3.5) with Coulomb stress change $\Delta {\sigma }_{{\rm{c}}}$ ≥ 5 kPa, within different depth range (a and b. 40–60 km; c and d. 60–80 km; e and f. 80–100 km). Mechanism of the local events was assumed to be the same as the fifth event (a, c, and e: 2019/05/31, Mw 6.1) and the sixth event (b, d, and f. 2019/09/29, Mw 6.2).

    A2.  Number of earthquakes versus magnitude of events in the local catalog during 2018/08/01 to 2019/06/15. Blue circles are the raw data, and black line is fitted flowing the Gutenberg-Richter law.

    A3.  The event distributions and their relationship with Coulomb stress changes of the first event at the regions plotted in Fig. 2. Receiver fault of these local events are set the same as the sixth event (2019/09/29, Mw 6.2). a–b. Accumulated event number (left y-axis) and magnitude distributions (right y-axis) during 2018/07/31 to 2019/09/29, associated with positive Coulomb stress changes (a) and negative Coulomb stress changes (b); c–d. Blue and red bars show the histogram of negative and positive Coulomb stress changes respectively; c. Histogram of the Mw ≥ 2.5 earthquakes during 2018/12/29 to 2019/09/29; d. Histogram of the Mw ≥ 3.5 earthquakes during 2018/12/29 to 2019/09/29; e. Histogram of Mw ≥ 2.5 events during 2018/07/31 to 2018/12/29; and f. Histogram of Mw ≥ 3.5 events during 2018/07/31 to 2018/12/29. The numbers indicate the total count during these periods, and only events with stress change ≥ 5 kPa are counted.

    A4.  Coulomb stress changes generated by the first event (2018/12/29, Mw 7.0). The source fault model is based on the finite slip model from USGS website (https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us2000iyta/finite-fault). The Coulomb stress changes are computed at depth of 50 km, 70 km and 90 km, receiver fault mechanism was set to be the optimal thrust fault (a, c, and e) and optimal normal fault (b, d, and f). Solid circles show the local events within different depth range ±10 km.

    A5.  The local seismicity at the 0.5°×0.5° square with the center of the event 2019/05/31. No instant seismicity increase is observed after 2018/12/29 at this region. The occurrence time of the five earthquakes is marked with dashed blue lines.

    Table  1.   The detailed information of these six earthquakes based on GCMT catalog

    No.DateLatitude*Longitude*Depth*/kmMwStr1/dip1/rake1/(°)**Str2/dip2/rake2/(°)
    12018/12/295.48/°N127.05/°E607.034/46/134160/59/55
    22019/03/0810.37/°N126.13/°E176.1160/36/695/57/104
    32019/04/2215.02/°N120.34/°E106.1329/86/–359/87/–176
    42019/04/2311.79/°N125.37/°E616.470/21/144194/78/73
    52019/05/316.15/°N126.7/°E786.1197/30/125338/66/72
    62019/09/295.52/°N126.66/°E636.2226/21/–179135/90/–69
    Notes: * Earthquake location refers to the local catalog. **Primary fault geometry used in Coulomb stress change calculation
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    Table  2.   Static Coulomb stress change of each event to the subsequent events

    Source faultStatic Coulomb stress change on each receiver fault/kPa
    No.Date2019/03/082019/04/222019/04/232019/05/312019/09/29
    12018/12/29< 0.1< 0.1< 0.1191
    22019/03/08/< 0.1< 0.1< 0.1< 0.1
    32019/04/22//< 0.1< 0.1< 0.1
    42019/04/23///< 0.1< 0.1
    52019/05/31////0.4
    62019/09/29/////
    Note: Bold numbers indicate the Static Coulomb stress change ≥ 1 kPa.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Dynamic stress change of each event to the subsequent events

    Source faultDynamic stress change on each receiver faults/kPa
    No.Date2019/03/082019/04/222019/04/232019/05/312019/09/29
    12018/12/291335941 5173 532
    22019/03/08/1992824
    32019/04/22//1811
    42019/04/23///3430
    52019/05/31////329
    62019/09/29/////
    Note: Bold numbers indicate the Dynamic stress change ≥ 300 kPa
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   ETAS model parameters

    ParameterμAcαpdqγ
    Value1.020.130.061.421.130.0041.941.41
    下载: 导出CSV
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