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Chongwei Zheng. A positive trend in the stability of global offshore wind energy[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2187-5
Citation: Chongwei Zheng. A positive trend in the stability of global offshore wind energy[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2187-5

A positive trend in the stability of global offshore wind energy

doi: 10.1007/s13131-023-2187-5
Funds:  The Open Fund Project of Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Ocean University of China under contract No. kloe201901; the Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research under contract SKLEC-KF201707.
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  • Corresponding author: Corresponding E-mail address: chinaoceanzcw@sina.cn
  • Received Date: 2022-12-31
  • Accepted Date: 2023-03-16
  • Available Online: 2023-11-24
  • The recognition on the trend of wind energy stability is still extremely rare, although it is closely related to acquisition efficiency, grid connection, equipment lifetime, and costs of wind energy utilization. Using the 40-year (1979–2018) ERA-Interim data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), this study presented the spatial-temporal distribution and climatic trend of the stability of global offshore wind energy as well as the abrupt phenomenon of wind energy stability in key regions over the past 40 years with the climatic analysis method and Mann-Kendall (M-K) test. The results show the following 5 points. (1) According to the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the wind power density (WPD), there are six permanent stable zones of global offshore wind energy: the southeast and northeast trade wind zones in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, the Southern Hemisphere westerly, and a semi-permanent stable zone (North Indian Ocean). (2) There are six low-value zones for both seasonal variability index (Sv) and monthly variability index (Mv) globally, with a similar spatial distribution as that of the six permanent stable zones. The Mv and Sv in the Arabian Sea are the highest in the world. (3) After the Cv, Mv and Sv are comprehensively considered, the six permanent stable zones have an obvious advantage in the stability of wind energy over other sea areas, with Cv below 0.8, Mv within 1.0, and Sv within 0.7 all the year round. (4) The global stability of offshore wind energy shows a positive climatic trend for the past four decades. The Cv, Mv, and Sv have not changed significantly or decreased in most of the global ocean during 1979 to 2018. That is, wind energy is flat or more stable, while the monthly and seasonal variabilities tend to shrink/smooth, which is beneficial for wind energy utilization. (5) The Cv in the low-latitude Pacific and the Mv and Sv in both the North Indian and the low-latitude Pacific have an obvious abrupt phenomenon at the end of the 20th century.
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