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Xiaoli Chen, Chunxia Zhou, Lei Zheng, Mingci Li, Yong Liu, Tingting Liu. Arctic summer sea ice phenology including ponding from 1982 to 2017[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica.
Citation: Xiaoli Chen, Chunxia Zhou, Lei Zheng, Mingci Li, Yong Liu, Tingting Liu. Arctic summer sea ice phenology including ponding from 1982 to 2017[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica.

Arctic summer sea ice phenology including ponding from 1982 to 2017

Funds:  The National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2018YFC1406102; the Funds for the Distinguished Young Scientists of Hubei Province (China) under contract No. 2019CFA057; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41941010 and 41776200.
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  • Information on the Arctic sea ice climate indicators is crucial to business strategic planning and climate monitoring. Data on the evolvement of the Arctic sea ice and decadal trends of phenology factors during melt season are necessary for climate prediction under global warming. Previous studies on Arctic sea ice phenology did not involve melt ponds that dramatically lower the ice surface albedo and tremendously affect the process of sea ice surface melt. Temporal means and trends of the Arctic sea ice phenology from 1982 to 2017 were examined based on satellite-derived sea ice concentration and albedo measurements. Moreover, the timing of ice ponding and two periods corresponding to it were newly proposed as key stages in the melt season. Therefore, four timings, i.e., date of snow and ice surface melt onset (MO), date of pond onset (PO), date of sea ice opening (DOO), and date of sea ice retreat (DOR), and three durations, i.e., melt pond formation period (MPFP, i.e., MO–PO), melt pond extension period (MPEP, i.e., PO–DOR), and seasonal loss of ice period (SLIP, i.e., DOO–DOR), were used. PO ranged from late April in the peripheral seas to late June in the central Arctic Ocean in Bootstrap results, whereas the pan-Arctic was observed nearly 4 days later in NASA Team results. Significant negative trends were presented in the MPEP in the Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay, the Greenland Sea, and Kara and Barents Seas in both results, indicating that the Arctic sea ice undergoes a quick transition from ice to open water, thereby extending the melt season year to year. The high correlation coefficient between MO and PO, MPFP illustrated that MO predominates the process of pond formation.
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