FIO-ESM v2.0 CORE2-forced experiment for the CMIP6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project
Abstract: In this study, we introduced the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) Ocean Model Intercomparison Project CORE2-forced (OMIP-1) experiment by using the First Institute of Oceanography Earth System Model version 2.0 (FIO-ESM v2.0), and comprehensively evaluated the simulation results. Unlike other OMIP models, FIO-ESM v2.0 includes a coupled ocean surface wave component model that takes into account non-breaking surface wave-induced vertical mixing in the ocean and effect of surface wave Stokes drift on air-sea momentum and heat fluxes in the climate system. A sub-layer sea surface temperature (SST) diurnal cycle parameterization was also employed to take into account effect of SST diurnal cycle on air-sea heat ﬂuxes to improve simulations of air-sea interactions. Evaluations show that mean values and long-term trends of significant wave height were adequately reproduced in the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulations, and there is a reasonable fit between the SST diurnal cycle obtained from in situ observations and that parameterized by FIO-ESM v2.0. Evaluation of model drift, temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth, and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation shows that the model performs well in the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulation. However, the summer sea ice extent of the Arctic and Antarctic is underestimated.
Figure 1. Drifts of horizontal and global mean potential temperature (unit: °C) and salinity (unit: psu). Drift is defined as deviation from the value obtained from the first model year. Dashed lines indicate the 62-year forcing cycle, corresponding to calendar years 1948-2009, which was repeated for 5 times.
Figure 2. Time series of annual mean (a) Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) (unit: 106 m3 s−1) maximum at 26.5°N, and (b) Global Meridional Overturning Circulation (GMOC) (unit: 106 m3 s−1) minimum between 2000 m depth and ocean bottom at 30°S. Dashed lines indicate the 62-year forcing cycle, corresponding to calendar years 1948-2009, that was repeated.
Figure 3. Biases of zonally averaged (a) temperature (unit: °C) and (b) salinity (unit: psu) from the last cycle of the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulation relative to observed climatological values from World Ocean Atlas 2013 version 2 (WOA13 v2). Black contour is zonally averaged temperature and salinity from WOA13v2.
Figure 5. Simulated and observed mixed layer depth (MLD) (units: m) in summer and winter. Mixed layer depth is defined as the depth where ocean potential density deviates from its value at the surface by 0.03 kg m−3. The average of January, February and March is selected as the typical months for boreal winter (austral summer), and the average of July, August and September is selected as the typical months for boreal summer (austral winter). Observations are from de Boyer Montégut et al. (2004).
Figure 6. (a) Atlantic overturning streamfunction from the last cycle of the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulation (units: 106 m3 s−1), (b) AMOC streamfunction profiles (brown line: FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulation, blue line: RAPID observations) at 26.5°N between 2004 and 2009, and (c) AMOC index (units: 106 m3 s−1) from the last cycle of the FIO-ESM v2.0 OMIP-1 simulation.
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