Satellite observed shape-based overall rotation—a new aspect in eddy kinematics

Xueqing Yang Guiyan Han Chunyong Ma Chuanchuan Cao Jie Yang Ge Chen

Xueqing Yang, Guiyan Han, Chunyong Ma, Chuanchuan Cao, Jie Yang, Ge Chen. Satellite observed shape-based overall rotation—a new aspect in eddy kinematics[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1970-4
Citation: Xueqing Yang, Guiyan Han, Chunyong Ma, Chuanchuan Cao, Jie Yang, Ge Chen. Satellite observed shape-based overall rotation—a new aspect in eddy kinematics[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1970-4

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1970-4

Satellite observed shape-based overall rotation—a new aspect in eddy kinematics

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 42030406; the National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2019YFD0901001.
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  • Figure  1.  Time series of eddy shape (solid line) for an anticyclonic eddy with a lifetime of 1 641d in the Pacific Ocean during 04 October 2001−02 January 2002. T0 is the initial day, and the time interval is 10 d. The dashed line in each panel denotes the best-fit ellipse to the eddy boundary.

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagrams of the definition of SOER, internal circulation and migration. ∠θ1=∠β−∠α, ∠θ2=∠γ−∠β

    Figure  3.  Flow chart of the algorithm used to extract shape-based overall eddy rotation (SOER) features.

    Figure  4.  Global mean of the geometric correlation of the eddy shape as a function of normalized lifetime.

    Figure  5.  Evolutions of quarterly averaged contours of six LAEs (longest anticyclonic eddies) and LCEs (longest cyclonic eddies) during 1993–2018. a. 06 January 2003–09 December 2008 (2 165 d), b. 06 June 2003–06 March 2008 (1 736 d), c. 19 April 1999–15 October 2003 (1 641 d), d. 08 October 2005–19 October 2009 (1 473 d), e. 03 January 2011–07 November 2013 (1 040 d), and f. 27 April 2012–18 August 2014 (844 d). Blue/DJF, green/MAM, red/JJA and yellow/SON lines represent the periods of December–January–February, March–April–May, June–July–August, and September–October–November, respectively. The light blue curves represent the trajectories of the two eddies, while the solid white arrows indicate their propagation directions. The vertical hollow white arrows indicate the locations where a new overall rotation cycle is started by the eddy orientations. g–l. Accumulated angle of the overall rotation of the eddy orientations corresponding respectively to a–f, as represented by the monthly mean orientation of the major axis of the best-fit ellipses. Also overlaid are the timings of the 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270° orientations of the corresponding eddy (the blue, green, red, and yellow vertical dashed lines).

    Figure  6.  Rotational speed (a) and rotation cycle (b) as a function of eddy lifetime.

    Figure  7.  Geographical distribution of rotational speed. EP and WP represent eddies propagating eastward and westward, respectively.

    Figure  8.  Rotational speed as a function of latitude.

    Figure  9.  Scatter diagrams of eddy circulation speed (a–c) and migration speed (d–f) versus rotational speed during 1993–2018, respectively. An average curve is overlaid on each panel (white line). Panels g and h are the average circulation speed and average migration speed as a function of eddy rotational speed for short-lived, medium-lived and long-lived oceanic eddies, corresponding to each white line in Panels a–h, respectively.

    Figure  10.  Geographical distribution of eddy migration speed. Note that EP and WP represent eddies propagating eastward and westward, respectively.

    Figure  11.  Geographical distribution of eddy circulation speed. EP and WP represent eddies propagating eastward and westward, respectively.

    Table  1.   Properties of long-lived eddies in Fig. 5

    Correspondhg figureTypeLifetime

    /d
    OriginateTerminatedirection Migrationdistance/km
    Migration
    Fig. 5aAE2 16559.1°N, 143°W;
    06 January 2003
    46.6°N, 172.0°W
    09; December 2008
    westward5 657.5
    Fig. 5bAE1 73638.4°S, 121.1°E;
    06 June 2003
    27.7°S, 70.3°E
    06; March 2008
    westward6 662.5
    Fig. 5cCE1 64128.8°N, 18.2°W;
    19 April 1999
    30.4°N, 58.3°W
    15; October 2003
    westward6 231.3
    Fig. 5dCE1 47327.8°S, 113.2°E;
    08 October 2005
    36.4°S, 73.6°E
    19; October 2009
    westward5 498.8
    Fig. 5eAE1 04057.4°S, 135.3°E;
    03 January 2011
    59.4°S, 143.9°E
    07; November 2013
    eastward1 894.3
    Fig. 5fCE84457.0°S, 20.5°W;
    27 April 2012
    56.4°S, 12.0°W
    18; August 2014
    eastward1 609.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   Categorized statistics of shape-based overall eddy rotation (SOER) direction by lifetime, polarity and hemisphere

    TypeLoationRotating dirctionShort-lived eddiesMedium-lived eddiesLong-lived eddiesAll eddies
    NumberPercentageNumberPercentageNumberPercentageNumberPercentage
    AENHCW113 62549.57%67 21157.09%96087.83%181 79652.23%
    ACW115 59650.43%50 52442.91%13312.17%166 25347.77%
    SHCW134 95646.96%80 42640.00%23412.41%215 61643.97%
    ACW152 42653.04%120 63860.00%1 65287.59%274 71656.03%
    CENHCW113 48947.88%53 63542.81%11818.15%167 24246.08%
    ACW123 54152.12%71 63857.19%53281.85%195 71153.92%
    SHCW143 60949.84%120 74357.74%1 50583.89%265 85753.27%
    ACW144 54350.16%88 37542.26%28916.11%233 20746.73%
    Note: SH, southern hemisphere; NH, northern hemisphere; ACW, anti-clockwise; CW, clockwise.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   Categorized statistics of shape-based overall eddy rotation (SOER) direction by lifetime, polarity and propagation direction

    TypePropagating directionRotating dirctionShort-lived eddiesMedium-lived eddiesLong-lived eddiesAll eddies
    NumberPercentageNumberPercentageNumberPercentageNumberPercentage
    AEWPCW173 06248.06%107 28247.09%1 03339.62%281 37747.65%
    ACW187 03151.94%120 56352.91%1 57460.38%309 16852.35%
    EPCW75 51948.25%40 35544.37%16143.28%116 03546.82%
    ACW80 99151.75%50 59955.63%21156.72%131 80153.18%
    CEWPCW175 99748.71%121 03650.83%1 27364.07%298 30649.60%
    ACW185 30151.29%117 10049.17%71435.93%303 11550.40%
    EPCW81 10149.49%53 34255.42%35076.59%134 79351.72%
    ACW82 78350.51%42 91344.58%10723.41%125 80348.28%
    Note: ACW, anti-clockwise; CW, clockwise. EP and WP represent eddies propagating eastward and westward, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-22
  • 录用日期:  2021-10-02
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-02

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