Characteristics and influencing factors of frontal upwelling in the Yellow Sea in summer

Fan Sun Fei Yu Guangcheng Si Jianfeng Wang Anqi Xu Jun Pan Ying Tang

Fan Sun, Fei Yu, Guangcheng Si, Jianfeng Wang, Anqi Xu, Jun Pan, Ying Tang. Characteristics and influencing factors of frontal upwelling in the Yellow Sea in summer[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1967-z
Citation: Fan Sun, Fei Yu, Guangcheng Si, Jianfeng Wang, Anqi Xu, Jun Pan, Ying Tang. Characteristics and influencing factors of frontal upwelling in the Yellow Sea in summer[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1967-z

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1967-z

Characteristics and influencing factors of frontal upwelling in the Yellow Sea in summer

Funds: The National Key Research and Development Project under contract No. 2017YFC1403400; the National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2016YFC1402501; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41806164; the Open Fund Project of Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Information Technology, Ministry of Natural Resources; the Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers under contract No. U1406401.
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  • Figure  1.  Model domain with topography (a), and map of the study area (b). The red dashed box represents the location of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. Coloured shading and grey solid lines denote bathymetry (in m). The black dots represent the locations of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiler stations from the cruise surveys in August 2015. The red star represents the H05 mooring station.

    Figure  2.  a. M2 co-tidal chart simulated by the model with homogeneous water. The solid and dashed lines denote the phase lag (°) and amplitude (cm), respectively. The phase lag was referenced to Beijing local time (UT + 8 h). The black dots denote locations of 77 tide gauges. b. Comparison between the modelled and observed amplitudes at 77 tidal gauges represented by the dots in a. c. Same as b but for the phase lag.

    Figure  3.  Comparisons between observed (solid lines) and modelled (dashed lines) results for meridional (a) and zonal (b) depth-mean tidal velocities at the H05 mooring station (shown in Fig. 1b).

    Figure  4.  Horizontal distribution of the monthly mean sea surface temperature in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (a) and model results (b) in August 2015. The contour interval is 1°C.

    Figure  5.  Bottom temperature distribution of in situ observations (a) and monthly mean model results (b) in August 2015. The contour interval (CI) is 2°C. White dashed lines denote three cold cores of the Yellow Sea cold water mass. c. Distributions of thermocline strength in August 2015. Unit: °C/m with CI=0.5°C/m.

    Figure  6.  Temperature distributions of in situ observations (a, c) and monthly mean model results (b, d) in August 2015. The upper panels represent the 35°N section, and the lower panels represent the 36°N section. The contour interval is 2°C. The triangles in a and c denote the conductivity-temperature-depth stations.

    Figure  7.  Horizontal distributions of simulated bottom upwelling velocity (a); the dashed lines show two representative sections along 35°N (HK) and 37.2°N (CK); simulated bottom temperature fronts (BTFs) in August (b); the thick solid line denotes the location of the maximum temperature gradient along the belt of BTFs; S denotes the starting point of the solid line; A–H represent locations of maximum values in Fig. 6.

    Figure  8.  The distributions of bottom temperature fronts (BTFs) strength and upwelling velocity along the slope of the Yellow Sea (YS) (the thick solid line in Fig. 7b) in August. The green stars denote the maximum values in different regions. The locations of A–H are presented in Fig. 7b. The dashed line denotes the location of 124°E, which was selected as the divide between the western YS and eastern YS.

    Figure  9.  Time series of modelled surface elevation at the H05 mooring station for July and August 2015 (a); time series of bottom upwelling strength (w) averaged from points A–H (b).

    Figure  10.  Distributions of the topography in the control run (a) and ExpA (b); the topography was set to be symmetrical in the southern Yellow Sea. The coloured shading and grey solid lines denote bathymetry (in m), contour interval=20 m.

    Figure  11.  Distributions of temperature and u-w velocity along the 35°N section in the control run (a) and ExpA (b). The coloured shading and white solid lines denote temperature in °C, the white dashed lines denote cold cores of the Yellow Sea cold water mass. Vectors denote u-w velocity, and the vertical velocity has been multiplied by 1 000.

    Figure  12.  Regional average change ratios in frontal upwelling in each experiment. The longitude 124°E was selected as the division line of the western Yellow Sea (YS) and eastern YS.

    Figure  13.  Distribution of the change in magnitude of upwelling in Expt1 (a), Expt2 (b), Expt3 (c) and Expw3 (d).

    Figure  14.  Time variations of the temperature anomaly in Expt1 (a) and the vertical diffusion term (VDIF) in the ctl group (b) along the bottom of the 36°N section from February to August 2015.

    Figure  15.  Horizontal distributions of the bottom temperature anomaly (solid lines, unit: °C) and change ratio of the bottom temperature gradient (coloured shading) in Expt1 (a), Expt2 (b), Expt3 (c) and Expw3 (d).

    Figure  16.  Distributions of u-w anomalies along the 35°N section (a) and 37.2°N section (b) in August in Expw3. The vertical velocity has been multiplied by 1 000.

    Table  1.   Changes in external forcings in sensitivity experiments

    ExperimentForcing conditions
    Expt1air temperature in the previous winter increased by 20%
    Expt2air temperature in spring increased by 20%
    Expt3air temperature in summer increased by 20%
    Expw1southerly wind in the previous winter increased by 20%
    Expw2southerly wind in spring increased by 20%
    Expw3southerly wind in summer increased by 20%
    Expr1precipitation rate in the previous winter increased by 20%
    Expr2precipitation rate in spring increased by 20%
    Expr3precipitation rate in summer increased by 20%
    Note: The previous winter is defined as December to February, springis defined as March to May, and summer is defined as June to August.
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-13
  • 录用日期:  2021-09-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-16

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