Unveiling controls of the latitudinal gradient of surface pCO2 in the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation regions (northwestern North Pacific) in late spring

Chenglong Li Weidong Zhai Di Qi

Chenglong Li, Weidong Zhai, Di Qi. Unveiling controls of the latitudinal gradient of surface pCO2 in the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation regions (northwestern North Pacific) in late spring[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1949-1
Citation: Chenglong Li, Weidong Zhai, Di Qi. Unveiling controls of the latitudinal gradient of surface pCO2 in the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation regions (northwestern North Pacific) in late spring[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1949-1

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1949-1

Unveiling controls of the latitudinal gradient of surface pCO2 in the Kuroshio Extension and its recirculation regions (northwestern North Pacific) in late spring

Funds: The Senior User Project of R/V KEXUE of the Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, under contract No. KEXUE2020G07; the Open Fund Project of the State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, under contract No. LTO1906; the Survey Project of Environmental Radioactivity Detection in the Western Pacific (R/V Xiangyanghong 3) of the Laboratory of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resource.
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  • Figure  1.  Study area and surface data. a. Northwestern North Pacific and sampling sites in May 2018. Circles and pluses in a represent conductivity-temperature-depth/pressure and underway sampling stations, respectively. The climatological mean annual net air-sea CO2 flux was replotted from Takahashi et al. (2009). Negative values indicate oceanic CO2 uptake. Approximate locations of Oyashio Current, Kuroshio Current, Kuroshio Extension (KE), Kuroshio Recirculation (KR), Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC), Kuroshio front (KF), and Subtropical front (SF) are also illustrated (Kobashi et al., 2006; Kitamura et al., 2016; Oka et al., 2018). b. Monthly mean chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration in May 2018 obtained from https://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov (while lines indicate the cruise track). c. Underway sea surface temperature (SST), atmospheric and water pCO2 from May 10 to June 7, 2018. For pCO2, 1 μatm=0.101 Pa. Discrete water pCO2 was calculated from dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity values collected at the sampling stations shown in a. Discrete pCO2 at 28°C was calculated using the formula pCO228°C=pCO2×e0.0423(28−SST) following Takahashi et al. (2002).

    Figure  2.  Distributions of sea surface temperature (a), salinity (b), pCO2 (c), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) (d) from mid-May to early June in 2018. For pCO2, 1 μatm=0.101 Pa.

    Figure  3.  Latitudinal variations in underway and discreate parameters along the 147°E transect in May 2018. Discrete parameters were collected on station. For pCO2, 1 μatm=0.101 Pa. Red vertical dashed lines denote the Kuroshio front (KF) and subtropical front (SF). KE: Kuroshio Extension, KR: Kuroshio Recirculation.

    Figure  4.  Water potential temperature (θ) versus salinity diagrams and vertical distributions. a, b. θ-S diagrams, c. temperature (black line) and potential density (σθ) (white line), d. salinity, e. DIC, f. TAlk, g. apparent oxygen utilization (AOU), and h. pCO2 along the 147°E transect in May 2018. In a and b, the contour lines represent σθ, and colors indicate TAlk and DIC in the upper 200 m. For pCO2, μatm=0.101 Pa. KE: Kuroshio Extension, KR: Kuroshio Recirculation, STCC: Subtropical Countercurrent, NPTW: North Pacific Tropical Water, STMW: Subtropical Mode Water, NPIW: North Pacific Intermediate Water.

    Figure  5.  Plots of sea surface pCO2 versus temperature (a) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) (b), temperature-normalized surface pCO2 at 28°C versus Chl a (c), and major processes controlling surface pCO2 distribution (d) in the study area. For pCO2, μatm=0.101 Pa. In a, black line represents temperature-driven variability of pCO2T=390×exp[0.0423(SST−28)], gray rectangles indicate atmospheric pCO2, and black circles indicate data obtained in the subtropical zone (21°−27°N), red and blue diamonds indicate data obtained in the KR zone (27°−35°N) and KE zone (35°−39°N), respectively. In d, Processes ① and ② indicate that vertical mixing results in DIC increase (increasing pCO2) and sea surface temperature (SST) drawdown (decreasing pCO2), respectively. Process ③ indicates SST recovery from vertical-mixing-induced SST drawdown as the mixed surface water absorbs heat from the atmosphere, thereby canceling out the effect of vertical-mixing-induced SST drawdown on surface pCO2.

    Figure  6.  Latitudinal distributions (21°−39°N, 147°E) of pCO2 difference between seawater and air (ΔpCO2sea-air) (a), partial changes in ΔpCO2sea-air related to individual biogeochemical processes of cooling (ΔpCO2Cool), biological activities (ΔpCO2Bio), atmospheric pCO2 variations (ΔpCO2Air), and the residual (ΔpCO2Residual) (b), and latitudinal distributions of temperature-normalized pCO2 at 28°C (c), NDIC (d), and NTAlk (e) along the 147°E transect in May 2018. For pCO2, 1 μatm=0.101 Pa. White dashed lines indicate potential density and black dots indicate sampling layers. Red vertical dashed lines denote the Kuroshio front (KF) and subtropical front (SF) KE: Kuroshio Extension, KR: Kuroshio Recirculation.

    Table  1.   Characteristics of water masses and surface currents in surface (2 m), 30 m, and 150/200 m layers along the 147°E (21°−39°N) transect and to the east of Luzon Strait (21°N, 123°−126°E) in May 2018

    Subtropical zone
    2STCC27.74±0.6034.78±0.14−9±21 960±92281±7387±2
    30STCC26.80±1.2434.80±0.13−9±11 963±122285±7374±11
    150NPTW20.41±1.3834.97±0.0614±82 025±162295±6373±18
    KR zone
    2KR21.90±0.6734.77±0.10−7±11 992±72277±6365±13
    30KR21.00±0.5034.80±0.07−12±51 996±82281±4354±12
    200STMW17.58±0.3934.82±0.0217±82 036±62279±4381±11
    KE zone
    2KE16.00±0.4434.46±0.13−26±62 006±42264±6324±10
    30KE14.74±0.9934.42±0.12−15±22 026±102266±8339±13
    200NPIW9.67±3.1034.14±0.3337±252 101±342263±6437±63
    East of Luzon Strait (21°N)2Kuroshio28.81±0.5734.33±0.07−11±41 933±52256±4388±7
    30Kuroshio27.38±0.7434.43±0.16−11±11 941±142265±11369±10
    150NPTW21.94±0.9134.96±0.0412±142 011±212297±4372±28
    Note: STCC, Subtropical Countercurrent; NPTW, North Pacific Tropical Water; KR, Kuroshio Recirculation; KE, Kuroshio Extension; STMW, Subtropical Mode Water; NPIW, North Pacific Intermediate Water.
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    Table  2.   Measured pCO2 (pCO2Meas), simulated temperature-dependent pCO2 (pCO2T), and the difference between pCO2Meas and pCO2T in areas to the south and north of the Kuroshio front from October 1990 to July 1991 and in May 2018

    TimeSouth of the Kuroshio frontNorth of the Kuroshio front
    Oct., 199026.03143301626.031433016
    Jan., 199120.02442904614.5193330137
    Feb., 199118.52293007114.5193320127
    May, 199121.52603004016.521027060
    Jun., 199124.02893203122.026531045
    Jul., 199129.5364365125.03013109
    May, 201821.72623585716.1207321114
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    Table  3.   Partial changes in pCO2 difference related to individual biogeochemical processes of cooling (ΔpCO2Cool), biological activities (ΔpCO2Bio), atmospheric pCO2 variations (ΔpCO2Air), and the residual (ΔpCO2Residual)

    Subtropical zone−5±2−4±10−2±21±10±10
    KR zone−31±10−89±90±2−3±261±7
    KE zone−76±16−154±4−24±6−7±1109±8
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    Table  4.   Air-sea equilibrium time for CO2 versus hydraulic residence time in the Kuroshio Extension zone

    Air-sea sequilibrium time for CO
    Temperature/°CDIC/(μmol·kg−1)CO2/(μmol·kg−1)Revelle factorWind speed/(m·s−1)dML/mTime/d
    Hydraulic residence time
    LongitudeLatitudeCurrent speed/(m·s−1)Distance/kmTime/d
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