Fluxes of riverine nutrient to the Pearl River Estuary and its potential eutrophication effect

Li Zhang Yumin Yang Weihong He Jie Xu Ruihuan Li

Li Zhang, Yumin Yang, Weihong He, Jie Xu, Ruihuan Li. Fluxes of riverine nutrient to the Pearl River Estuary and its potential eutrophication effect[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1919-7
Citation: Li Zhang, Yumin Yang, Weihong He, Jie Xu, Ruihuan Li. Fluxes of riverine nutrient to the Pearl River Estuary and its potential eutrophication effect[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1919-7

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1919-7

Fluxes of riverine nutrient to the Pearl River Estuary and its potential eutrophication effect

Funds: Special Project for Marine Economic Development (Six Major Marine Industries) of Guangdong Province under contract No. GDNRC[2020]064; Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou) under contract Nos GML2019ZD0303, GML2019ZD0305 and GML2019ZD0402; Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Nos ISEE2019ZR02 and ISEE2019ZR03; National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41676075 and 41706085; Department of Science and Technology of Guangdong Province under contract No. 2018B030320005.
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  • Figure  1.  Location of sampling stations in the Pearl River Estuary during March 2015–October 2017. The solid circles denoted the sampling stations (1–20) during March 2015–October 2017 and triangles represented sampling stations (21–34) in May and August 2015. PRE, HM, JM, HQM and HeM represented the Pearl River Estuary, Humen, Jiaomen, Hongqimen and Hengmen, respectively. Dashed line A was the boundary of riverine flux to Lingdingyang via four outlets. Line B showed the boundary of the budget systems as previous study (Liu et al., 2009).

    Figure  2.  Total Nutrient flux (residual flux (VRCR) and mixing exchange flux (VXCX)) from the Pearl River Estuary to the South China Sea derived from box model and riverine input (VQCQ) to the estuary.

    Figure  3.  Spatial and temporal variations in the surface salinity and Temperature in the Pearl River Estuary during March 2015−October 2017. Vertical bars denoted standard deviation errors.

    Figure  4.  Spatial and temporal variations in the surface ${\rm{NO}}_3^- $, ${\rm{NO}}_2^- $, ${\rm{NH}}_4^+ $/, DIN, DIP and DSi in the Pearl River Estuary during March 2015–October 2017. Vertical bars denoted standard deviation errors. HM, JM, and HQM represented the Humen, Jiaomen and Hongqimen, respectively.

    Figure  5.  Monthly average molar ratios of DIN:DIP, DSi:DIN and DSi:DIN at the surface at Stations 1−20 during March 2015–October 2017. Vertical bars denoted standard deviation errors. HM, JM and HQM represented the Humen, Jiaomen and Hongqimen, respectively.

    Figure  6.  Variations in the concentrations of ${\rm{NO}}_3^- $, DIN, DSi and DIP along a salinity gradient in the Pearl River Estuary at the surface and the bottom at Stations 21–34 in May and August 2015.

    Figure  7.  Spatial and temporal variations in chlorophyll a (Chl a) (a) and dissolved oxygen (DO) (b) at the surface during March 2015–October 2017. The solid line in (b) represented the value of DO = 2 mg/L. Vertical bars denoted standard errors. HM, JM and HQM represented the Humen, Jiaomen and Hongqimen, respectively.

    Figure  8.  Relationship between riverine nutrients fluxes to Lingdingyang via four outlets and the river discharge at the surface.

    Figure  9.  The relationship of riverine nutrient fluxes at the surface at Stations 1–20 during March 2015–October 2017.

    Figure  10.  Relationship between ${\rm{NO}}_3^- $ and DIN and relationship between ${\rm{NH}}_4^+ $ and DIN at the surface at Stations 1–20 during March 2015–2017. The graphs with lines indicated significant correlation between the two variables and the correlation coefficients were given in the graphs.

    Figure  11.  Water budgets for the Pearl River Estuary. The water flux is in 106 m/d. VQ, VP, VE, VR and VX are the river discharge, precipitation, evaporation, the residual flow and the mixing flow between the system of interest and the adjacent system, respectively. The words A and B refer to May and August 2015 cruises, respectively.

    Table  1.   Discharge, temperature and salinity at Stations 1−20 during March 2015−October 2017. The average values were shown in parentheses.

    March3669–9904 (7296)18.7–21.6 (20.4)0.13–16.7 (5.66)
    May10383–19700 (15480)23.6–27.9 (26.2)0.08–1.99 (0.30)
    August12866–16938 (14968)28.6–32.1 (30.6)0.08–7.41 (0.79)
    October11855–15034 (13367)25.8–28.6 (26.8)0.11–21.4 (5.90)
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    Table  2.   Estimation of nutrient fluxes (Mean ± SD) via four outlets in four seasons.

    Monthdischarge/(m3·s−1)FNO3/(106 mol·d−1)FDIN/(106 mol·d−1)FDIP/(106 mol·d−1)FDSi/(106 mol·d−1)FDIN:FDIPFDSi:FDINFDSi:FDIP
    March94715.0 ± 3.0125.0 ± 9.900.17 ± 0.0524.7 ± 12.11481.00150
    May3 30236.2 ± 15.863.7 ± 16.70.13 ± 0.0396.8 ± 37.34901.52744
    August3 14635.6 ± 12.549.6 ± 11.90.19 ± 0.1069.7 ± 30.02551.41359
    October2 22936.7 ± 5.7242.4 ± 4.370.38 ± 0.2446.3 ± 27.11131.09124
    March89310.7 ± 4.5412.3 ± 4.540.11 ± 0.0520.5 ± 8.411091.67183
    May3 11430.0 ± 8.4733.0 ± 7.600.26 ± 0.0476.5 ± 25.81242.32289
    August2 96623.0 ± 12.424.2 ± 12.70.38 ± 0.1658.5 ± 23.363.02.42152
    October2 10119.8 ± 2.1022.9 ± 1.290.33 ± 0.2241.8 ±
    March3253.75 ± 1.654.51 ± 1.620.05 ± 0.037.05 ± 2.8490.31.56141
    May1 13210.5 ± 4.0211.0 ± 3.810.11 ± 0.0426.0 ± 9.511142.17248
    August1 0788.40 ± 4.808.80 ± 4.870.12 ± 0.0421.2 ± 7.9675.82.41183
    October7647.49 ± 0.708.93 ± 0.440.11 ± 0.0914.9 ± 7.0683.61.67140
    May1 88716.319.80.13N/A150N/AN/A
    August1 79716.620.50.16N/A130N/AN/A
    October1 27410.912.70.11N/A111N/AN/A
    Note: *N/A means no data; a: data from Liu (2006)
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    Table  3.   Summary of the yearly average nutrient flux (Unit: 103 tons/a).

    Riverine fluxes3624663.55N/A
    Export fluxes49158510.8609
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    Table  4.   Estimation of riverine fluxes to Pearl River Estuary and export nutrient fluxes (Unit: 106 mol/d) of the Pearl River Estuary during May and August 2015. VRCR: residual nutrient transport out of the Pearl River Estuary; VXCX: mixing exchange flux of nutrients. Nutrient fluxes from the Pearl River Estuary to the South China Sea (seaward export flux) were estimated as the sum of the VRCR and VXCX. Positive and negative values of indicate that other processes may magnify or reduce the riverine fluxes.

    May 2015August 2015
    riverine flux (VC)71.51080.7514575.491.10.78170
    Residual flow (VRCR)-63.3-77.6-0.50-31.1-44.5-51.1-0.49-47.7
    Mixing exchange (VXCX)-57.5-71.7-0.55-28.6-27.3-29.3-0.37-12.3
    export flux (VRCR + VXCX)1211491.0559.771.880.40.8660.0
    Δ = (export flux – riverine flux)-49.3-46.7-0.3085.33.6010.7-0.08110
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