Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads

Jihong Zhang Wenguang Wu Yuchen Li Yi Liu Xinmeng Wang

Jihong Zhang, Wenguang Wu, Yuchen Li, Yi Liu, Xinmeng Wang. Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1909-9
Citation: Jihong Zhang, Wenguang Wu, Yuchen Li, Yi Liu, Xinmeng Wang. Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1909-9

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1909-9

Environmental effects of mariculture in China: An overall study of nitrogen and phosphorus loads

Funds: The National Key R&D Program of China under contract No. 2020YFA0607603; the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. XDA23050402; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41776155 and U1906216; the Marine S&T Fund of Shandong Province for Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) under contract No. 2018SDKJ0501-3.
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  • Figure  1.  Percentage of total production (tons) in typical mariculture systems (A), and the proportion in coastal provinces of China in 2019 (B) (From China Fishery Statistical Yearbook, 2020)

    Figure  2.  The N loads (A) and P loads (B) from the four typical mariculture systems of 10 provinces along with coastal China. (1) A: N loads (tons); B: P loads (tons); (2) Red color represents a positive value, the darker, the larger; green color represents a negative value, and the darker, the smaller.

    Figure  3.  N and P loads flux into the Chinese coast in 2019 (River and sewage’s data from China's Marine Environmental Status Bulletin)

    Table  1.   The waste coefficient of PDC, yield and nutrient release from the main species of the pond mariculture in China in 2019

    Waste sourcesYield/(103 t)Waste coefficient/ (g·kg−1)N release/ (103 t)P release/ (103 t)
    Takifugu sp.17.47315.510.650.280.02
    Sea bass180.26711.850.861.360.07
    Penaeus vannamei1 144.3701.820.293.140.39
    Penaeus monodon84.0662.040.320.250.03
    Penaeus chinensis38.5831.410.250.050.01
    Penaeus japonicus50.9681.670.310.070.01
    Portunus sp.113.8102.220.960.270.12
    Scylla sp.160.6162.650.110.450.02
    Sea cucumber171.7004.370.10.430.01
    Sea urchin8.2434.980.120.040.00
    Note: − represents no data.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  2.   The waste coefficient of PPC, yield and nutrient release from the main species of the cage mariculture of China in 2019

    /(103 t)
    Waste coefficient/(g·kg−1)N release/ (103 t)P release/(103 t)
    Pseudosciaena crocea225.5572.0212.0716.242.72
    Rachycentron canadum42.2276.4712.773.230.54
    Seriola sp.30.0076.4712.772.290.38
    Sciaenops ocellatus70.1972.0212.075.060.85
    Epinephelus sp.183.1376.4712.7714.002.34
    Note: − represents no data.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  3.   The N, P, and C contents, N and P removed by harvest of the main species of seaweed of China in 2019

    SpeciesYield/ tN/%P/%C/%N remove/ tP remove/ tC remove/ (103 t)
    Kelp1 461 0581.630.37931.2023 815.255 537.41506.69
    Undaria152 5723.410.3328.812 486.92578.2562.13
    Laver135 2521.880.05541.964 612.09446.3358.15
    Gracilaria293 1791.630.37924.505 511.77161.2598.86
    Others24 4762.310.2530.27565.4061.1910.94
    Total2 066 53736 991.436 784.43736.77
    Note: − represents no data.
    下载: 导出CSV

    Table  4.   The N, P, and C content and N and P removed by harvest of the main species of bivalves of China in 2019

    ItemOysterScallopMusselClamOthersTotal/(103 t)
    W/(106 t)4.831.860.884.171.21
    N CBivalve-m/%9.2310.519.239.009.92
    P CBivalve-m/%
    C CBivalve-m/%0.450.440.460.420.44
    N CBivalve-s/%0.14
    P CBivalve-s/%0.03
    C CBivalve-s/%0.11
    N remove/(103 t)10.7315.704.6231.114.3165.88
    P remove/(103 t)9.874.522.2721.682.854.12
    C remove/(103 t)383.37180.0198.29349.09102.261 112.79
    Note: − represents no data. The implications of the symbols refer to the Section 2.2.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-08
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  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-16