Using triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen-argon ratio to quantify ecosystem production in the mixed layer of northern South China Sea slope region

Zhuoyi Zhu Jun Wang Guiling Zhang Sumei Liu Shan Zheng Xiaoxia Sun Dongfeng Xu Meng Zhou

Zhuoyi Zhu, Jun Wang, Guiling Zhang, Sumei Liu, Shan Zheng, Xiaoxia Sun, Dongfeng Xu, Meng Zhou. Using triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen-argon ratio to quantify ecosystem production in the mixed layer of northern South China Sea slope region[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1846-7
Citation: Zhuoyi Zhu, Jun Wang, Guiling Zhang, Sumei Liu, Shan Zheng, Xiaoxia Sun, Dongfeng Xu, Meng Zhou. Using triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen-argon ratio to quantify ecosystem production in the mixed layer of northern South China Sea slope region[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1846-7

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1846-7

Using triple oxygen isotopes and oxygen-argon ratio to quantify ecosystem production in the mixed layer of northern South China Sea slope region

Funds: The National Key Research and Development Programs of China of the Ministry of Science and Technology under contract Nos 2020YFA0608301 and 2014CB441503; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41976042 and 41776122; the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; the Taishan Scholars Program of Shandong Province, China.
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  • Figure  1.  Study area (a) and sampling stations (b). In image a, the black box indicates the location of plot b. GOP represents gross oxygen production, NOP net oxygen production, and TS time series station.

    Figure  2.  Surface salinity distribution in October 2014 (a) and June 2015 (b) as revealed by grid stations (diamonds). The red star indicates the location of Station L07 where O2 samples were collected. Note that salinity ranges and gradients in both seasons are the same.

    Figure  3.  Wind speed before the sampling date (0 d is the sampling date). The blue dashed line (7.4 m/s) indicates the mean wind speed of the 60 d for observation in 2014 and the red dashed-dot line (5.6 m/s) indicates that for 2015. Data derived from www.remss.com.

    Figure  4.  Modeled mixed layer depth history until the sampling date (a. October 2014; b. June 2015). The observed mixed layer depth at the sampling date is shown as the red asterisk on the right y axis. The black dashed line indicates 5 d (a) and 8.5 d (b) before the sampling date, which gets close to the O2 residence time within the mixed layer. The bottom layer of the mixed layer criteria is a 0.125 kg/m3 difference from the surface. Note that the x-axis is reverse in direction relative to Fig. 3.

    Figure  5.  Pooled piston velocity k values in October 2014 (a) and June 2015 (b). mws, mean wind speed method (k″ in the text); tw (fixed mixed layer), time-weighted method with mixed layer unchanged (k′ in the text); tw (varied mixed layer), time-weighted method with mixed layer changed. Note that 7.49 and 2.52 were accepted as the k value in calculating the gross oxygen production for October 2014 and June 2015, respectively, and the x axis is disproportional.

    Figure  6.  O2 properties (δ18O, ([O2]/[O2]eq)bio, and Δ17O in per meg), ${{\rm {NO}}_3^-} $ concentration (μmol/L), and fluorescence signal at Station L07 in October (a, b) and June (c, d) 2014. The illumination condition is shown by dashed lines, PAR represents photosynthetic active radiation.

    Figure  7.  δO2/Ar values plotted against time at 5 m depth of the time series station. Note that the x axis is disproportional.

    A2.  14C-P rate versus depth within the euphotic zone in autumn (Station L07, mixed layer depth of 39.5 m) and spring (Station L05, mixed layer depth of 27 m). The dashed line indicates the bottom of mixed layer.

    A1.  Sea level anomaly (m) on October 13, 2014 (a) and June 15, 2015 (b) in this study. Note that both plots share the same contour range and color scale. Star indicates Station L07. Sea level anomaly data downloaded from https://las.aviso.altimetry.fr/las/.

    A3.  δ18O plotted against [O2] (as ln(fraction of remained O2)) in this study for both spring and autumn samples beneath the mixed layer.

    A4.  Nutrients plotted against O2 properties in the depths where oxygen is depleted (i.e., ([O2]/[O2]eq)bio < 1). AOV, apparent oxygen utilization.

    Table  1.   Main physical parameters in spring (June) and autumn (October) in the present study

    ParameterSpringAutumn
    Mixed layer depth/m21.539.5
    k (time-dependent)*/(m·d–1)2.5247.485
    k′ (time-independent)/(m·d–1)2.2857.509
    SST/°C30.20826.957
    Salinity33.80834.061
    [O2]eq/(μmol·L–1)195205
    ([O2]/[O2]eq)bio1.01111.0009
    GOP/(mmol·m–2·d–1) (by O2)189±26169±23
    NOP/(mmol·m–2·d–1) (by O2)8.2±1.11.5±0.7
    GOP/14C-P5.4
    Note: GOP, gross oxygen production; NOP, net oxygen production; k, pooled piston velocity; [O2] and [O2]eq represent the measured and equilibrated O2 concentration in the water, respectively; 14C-P represents 14C-based primary production; — represents no data; * this value was considered in the final GOP calculation.
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    Table  2.   Pooled production rates for the SCS shelf/slope region and other subtropical regions

    DateINP/(mmol·m–2·d–1) (by C)IPP/(mmol·m–2·d–1) (by C)RegionData Source
    Jul./Aug. 2006>75Song et al. (2012)
    Jul. 2003, Jun./Jul. 20045–1468.0–72.5SCS shelf and slope regionsChen and Chen (2006)
    Oct. 20022.5–1812.5–51.0SCS shelf regionChen (2005)
    May 200527SCS basin regionZhang et al. (2018)
    Jun./Jul.199819SCS basin regionNing et al. (2004)
    Oct. 201434present study
    Jun. 201531present study
    Oct. 20141.5±0.7169±23SCS slope regionpresent study
    Jun. 20158.2±1.1189±26SCS slope regionpresent study
    Aug. 20120–50200SCS slope regionWang et al. (2014)
    July270–376SCS shelf edgeHung et al. (2020)
    Annual10.7SCS basinHuang et al. (2018)
    Annual14±450–240subtropical PacificQuay et al. (2010)
    Aug. to Sep. 20065.9±0.9121±34western equatorial PacificStanley et al. (2010)
    Annual6–8.329–103BATLuz and Barkan (2009)
    Annual0–280BATNicholson et al. (2012)
    Annual25–210HOTNicholson et al. (2012)
    Note: BAT, Bermuda Atlantic time series study; HOT, Hawaii Ocean time series study; INP, integrated net production; IPP, integrated primary production; SCS, South China Sea; —, no data.
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-04
  • 录用日期:  2021-02-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-08

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