A Lagrangian study of the near-surface intrusion of Pacific water into the South China Sea

Gaolong Huang Haigang Zhan Qingyou He Xing Wei Bo Li

Gaolong Huang, Haigang Zhan, Qingyou He, Xing Wei, Bo Li. A Lagrangian study of the near-surface intrusion of Pacific water into the South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1766-6
Citation: Gaolong Huang, Haigang Zhan, Qingyou He, Xing Wei, Bo Li. A Lagrangian study of the near-surface intrusion of Pacific water into the South China Sea[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1766-6

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1766-6

A Lagrangian study of the near-surface intrusion of Pacific water into the South China Sea

Funds: The Strategic Priority Program on Space Science, the Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. XDA15020901; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41876205 and 41906026; the Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou) under contract Nos GML2019ZD0305 and GML2019ZD0302; the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong under contract No. 2018A0303100002; the Project of State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography under contract No. LTOZZ2002; the Open Fund of the Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. KLOCW1905.
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  • Figure  1.  Geographic distributions of the number of drifter observations in each 0.5°×0.5° bin between 1986 and 2014 (a), the total number of drifter observations (gray) in each year, the total number of drifter observations (gray) in each month (c). In a, the blue dots indicate the locations where the drifters were launched or drifted in. The black box outlines the Luzon Strait (18.6°–22.0°N, 120.4°–121.9°E). The green line approximates the mean Kuroshio core based on AVISO velocities. The black contours are 200 m and 1000 m isobaths. In b, the black bars denote the number of drogued drifters.

    Figure  2.  Selected drifter trajectories near the Luzon Strait. a and b. Trajectories of drifters that originated from the Pacific Ocean and reached the Luzon Strait from April–September and October–March; c. trajectories of drifters launched inside the Luzon Strait; and d. trajectories of cyclonic (blue) and anticyclonic (red) closed loops identified from drifters originating in the Pacific Ocean. Based on the different fates and the ways leaving the Luzon Strait, drifters in a–c are grouped into three types: those directly drifted into the SCS (blue), into the western Pacific after looping into the SCS (red), and into the western Pacific with no loop in the SCS (black). In b, the bold black line denotes the trajectory of the drifter with ID 7710570 and the yellow line denotes the western boundary of the strait. The bottom topography from 0 m to 1 000 m is shaded in gray with contour intervals of 200 m.

    Figure  3.  Seasonal cycles of quasi-Eulerian velocity fields (vectors) derived from the drifter observations. a. January–March, b. April–June, c. July–September, and d. October–December. The colors present the number of the 7-d observation windows in each 0.5°×0.5° bin. Note that the velocities were estimated only for bins with more than five 7-d observation windows.

    Figure  4.  The intrusion of Pacific water into the SCS. a. Intrusion probability map with 0.25°×0.25° bins. The green curve approximates the mean Kuroshio core. b. Trajectories of intrusion drifters 15 d before and after crossing the line 120.8°E (the red dash line) in the Luzon Strait. Yellow dots denote the initial positions of these trajectories. The zonal and meridional blue lines denote the KC and LSE section, respectively. c. A subset of trajectories across the KC section (18.5°N, 122.3°–124.0°E). d. A subset of trajectories across the LSE section (124.0°E, 18.5°N–23.0°N). In c and d, trajectories of drogued and undrogued drifters are marked in dark grey and grey, respectively.

    Figure  5.  Geographic distributions of geostrophic currents and EKE (a), Ekman currents (b), and residual velocities derived from drogued drifters (c) and undrogued drifters (d) in wintertime. The velocities were estimated only for bins with more than 5 drifter observations.

    Figure  6.  Schematic plot for release locations of three different groups of simulated particles (a, red dots), and a subset of 150-d trajectories of 54 particles released from the KC band and advected within the AVISO-NCEP velocity field (b). In a, the zonal and meridional blue lines denote the KC (18.5°N, 122.3°–124.0°E) and LSE (124.0°E, 18.5°–230.0°N) section, respectively. The average AVISO-NCEP velocity field is superimposed.

    Figure  7.  Probability maps (with 0.5°×0.5° boxes) for particles on Days 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 (top to bottom) after they are released from the KC (left) and LSE (right) band. Simulated particles are advected within the AVISO-NCEP velocity field during 1993 to 2014.

    Figure  8.  Intrusion percentages as a function of time for particles after they are released from the KC (left) and LSE (right) band. Different line styles correspond to different velocity fields used to evolve simulated trajectories.

    Figure  9.  Probability maps (with 0.5°×0.5° boxes) for particles on day 150 after they are released from the KC (left) and LSE (right) band. Simulated particles are advected within the AVISO-only (top), the AVISO-NCEP (middle) and the AVISO-NCEP-slip (bottom) velocity field between 1993 and 2014.

    Figure  10.  Time series of intrusion flux from the KC (blue line) and LSE (red line) section. Thin lines denote weekly flux and thick lines denote one-month running average flux. The yellow line marks the time of an eddy-related intrusion event.

    Figure  11.  Snapshots of the Lagrangian longitude maps on December 16, 2003 (a), December 23, 2003 (b), December 30, 2003 (c) and January 10, 2004 (d). The yellow circle denotes the central position of the cyclonic eddy under study. The 120.8°E contours are marked in magenta.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-15
  • 录用日期:  2020-11-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-24

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