Rapid decrease in Antarctic sea ice in recent years

Guanghua Hao Hui Shen Yongming Sun Chunhua Li

Guanghua Hao, Hui Shen, Yongming Sun, Chunhua Li. Rapid decrease in Antarctic sea ice in recent years[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1762-x
Citation: Guanghua Hao, Hui Shen, Yongming Sun, Chunhua Li. Rapid decrease in Antarctic sea ice in recent years[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica. doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1762-x

doi: 10.1007/s13131-021-1762-x

Rapid decrease in Antarctic sea ice in recent years

Funds: The National Key R&D Program of China under contract Nos. 2018YFA0605902 and 2018YFA0605903; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41606218 and 41941009; the fund of Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition logistics support item.
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  • Figure  1.  Location of the five subregions used for the sea ice analyses.

    Figure  2.  Yearly SIC trend during January 1979–December 2019 calculated by monthly SIC anomoly (a) and monthly SIC trend during January 2014–January 2019 (b). The shading indicates the 95% significance level.

    Figure  3.  Monthly trends of SIE during January 1979–December 2019 (black line), January 1979–December 2013 (red line) and January 2014–December 2019 (blue line) for the Antarctic (Ant, a), Weddell Sea (WS, b), Indian Ocean (IO, c), western Pacific Ocean (PO, d), Ross Sea (RS, e), and Bellingshausen/Amundsen seas (BA, f). The numbers in indicate the slope and standard deviations of the yearly trend during the longtime periods (black and red) and monthly trend (blue) for the rencent year in the five subregions.

    Figure  4.  Monthly Ta-2m trend during January 1979–December 2019 in summer (a) and autumn (c), and January 2014–December 2019 in summer (b) and autumn (d). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    Figure  5.  Distribution of Ta-2m differences (shading) and 10 m wind differences (vector) (2014–2019 minus 1979–2013) in summer (a), autumn (b), winter (c), and spring (d). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    6.  Distribution of the vertically integrated southward flux difference of moist static energy (2014–2019 minus 1979–2013) in summer (a), autumn (b), winter (c), and spring (d). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    Figure  7.  Distribution of low cloud cover difference (2014–2019 minus 1979–2013) in summer (a), autumn (b), winter (c), and spring (d). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    Figure  8.  The distribution of net downward longwave radiation difference (2014–2019 minus 1979–2013) in summer (a), autumn (b), winter (c), and spring (d). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    Figure  9.  The distribution of downward solar radiation difference (2014–2019 minus 1979–2013) in summer (a) and spring (b). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    Figure  10.  The distribution of net downward solar radiation difference (2014–2019 minus 1979–2013) in summer (a) and spring (b). The pink contours indicate the 90% significance level.

    Table  1.   The seasonal trend of SIE in summer (January–March), autumn (April–June), winter (July–September) and spring (October–December)

    PeriodSectorYearly SIE trendSeasonad trend of SIE
    Summer (JFM)Autumn (AMJ)Winter (JAS)Spring (OND)
    Value/
    (103 km2a–1)
    RValue/
    (103 km2a–1)
    RValue/
    (103 km2a–1)
    RValue/
    (103 km2a–1)
    RValue/
    (103 km2a–1)
    R
    1979–2019Ant6.8±2.23.17.2±7.70.910.4±8.11.38.2±4.71.71.5±6.80.2
    WS2.3±1.51.512.7±4.92.64.8±4.81.0–3.3±4.20.8–5.2±4.91.1
    IO1.5±0.81.92.2±1.31.72.6±2.11.31.7±2.80.6–0.3±3.20.1
    PO2.1±0.63.53.1±1.52.13.1±1.52.11.6±2.20.70.5±1.90.3
    RS4.6±1.24.0–1.2±4.10.36.9±3.71.95.4±3.21.77.5±3.62.1
    BA–3.7±0.94.2–9.5±1.85.3–7.1±2.52.82.8±2.91.0–0.9±3.20.3
    1979–2013Ant18.6±2.28.415.8±7.72.121.5±7.42.917.3±4.34.019.6±5.93.3
    WS4.7±1.82.614.9±5.62.78.2±5.31.5–3.4±5.40.6–1.0±6.10.2
    IO5.3±1.05.52.8±1.61.85.6±2.62.26.4±3.22.06.3±3.61.7
    PO2.4±0.83.13.2±2.01.63.9±1.82.11.0±2.90.31.6±2.50.6
    RS11.6±1.48.47.3±4.61.612.3±4.42.812.0±3.83.214.9±4.33.4
    BA–5.4±1.15.0–12.4±2.25.5–8.5±3.02.81.2±3.50.4–2.1±4.20.5
    2014–2019Ant–414.8±42.29.8–396.3±114.33.5–449.6±1183.8–279.6±68.14.1–341.8±131.62.6
    WS–201.0±25.38.0–208.4±62.53.3–192.7±67.82.8–22.8±59.90.4–101.5±63.81.6
    IO–65.8±14.54.5–17.3±23.20.7–62.5±12.65.0–76.9±42.61.8–68.4±47.91.4
    PO–32.9±8.14.1–50.5±13.33.8–59.0±6.78.8–26.1±26.21.0–46.1±29.11.6
    RS–94.4±19.34.9–151.9±47.23.2–123.6±36.93.3–84.7±39.12.2–71.6±35.32.0
    BA–20.8±17.01.231.8±19.11.7–11.7±46.60.3–69.1±47.51.5–54.3±46.91.2
    Note: R is the ratio of the slope magnitude to its standard deviation. The bold numbers indicate the 95% significance level.
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-13
  • 录用日期:  2020-11-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-29

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