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Gayan Pathirana, Dongxiao Wang, Gengxin Chen, M. K. Abeyratne, Tilak Priyadarshana. Effect of seasonal barrier layer on mixed-layer heat budget in the Bay of Bengal[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica.
 Citation: Gayan Pathirana, Dongxiao Wang, Gengxin Chen, M. K. Abeyratne, Tilak Priyadarshana. Effect of seasonal barrier layer on mixed-layer heat budget in the Bay of Bengal[J]. Acta Oceanologica Sinica.

# Effect of seasonal barrier layer on mixed-layer heat budget in the Bay of Bengal

Funds:  The National Key R&D program of China under contract No. 2017YFC1405103; the Major State Research Development Program of China under contract No. 2016YFC1402603; the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. XDA 20060502; the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract Nos 41976016, 42076021 and 41521005; the Key Special Project for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory under contract No. GML2019ZD0306; the Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation under contract No. 2021A1515011534; the Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No. ISEE2021ZD01; the State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography SCSIO under contract No. LTOZZ2002.
• Time series measurements (2010–2017) from the Research Moored Array for African–Asian–Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) moorings at 15°N, 90°E and 12°N, 90°E are used to investigate the effect of the seasonal barrier layer (BL) on the mixed-layer heat budget in the Bay of Bengal (BoB). The mixed-layer temperature tendency ($\partial T/\partial t$) is primarily controlled by the net surface heat flux that remains in the mixed layer (${Q}^{\text{'}}$) from March to October, while both ${Q}^{\text{'}}$ and the vertical heat flux at the base of the mixed layer (${Q}_{h}$), estimated as the residual of the mixed-layer heat budget, dominate during winter (November–February). An inverse relation is observed between the BL thickness and the mixed-layer temperature ($\mathrm{M}\mathrm{L}\mathrm{T}$). Based on the estimations at the moorings, it is suggested that when the BL thickness is ≥25 m, it exerts a considerable influence on $\partial T/\partial t$ through the modulation of ${Q}_{h}$ (warming) in the BoB. The cooling associated with ${Q}_{h}$ is strongest when the BL thickness is ≤10 m with the $\mathrm{M}\mathrm{L}\mathrm{T}$ exceeding 29°C, while the contribution from ${Q}_{h}$ remains nearly zero when the BL thickness varies between 10 m and 25 m. Temperature inversion is evident in the BoB during winter when the BL thickness remains ≥25 m with an average $\mathrm{M}\mathrm{L}\mathrm{T}$ <28.5°C. Furthermore, ${Q}_{h}$ follows the seasonal cycle of the BL at these RAMA mooring locations, with $r > 0.72$ at the 95% significance level.

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